Schreiner K.,European Academy Bozen Bolzano EURAC |
Pecher C.,European Academy Bozen Bolzano EURAC |
Schermer M.,Universitatsstrasse 15 |
Siegl G.,University of Innsbruck |
And 3 more authors.
Ekologia Bratislava | Year: 2011
An intact landscape has not only an esthetic value, but it also increases the quality of life for the resident population and attractiveness for tourists. The landscape also provides essential ecological services for society, such as soil conservation, preservation of biodiversity, and provision of clean water. The typical cultural landscape in Tyroland South Tyrol was developed in the 15 th century. Cultural-landscape differences arose from different legal traditions between East and West and from a changed legal situation after the affiliation of South Tyrol to Italy.Moreover,the opening of the markets during the 19 th century had the following consequences: Favourable locations were increasingly intensified while peripheral locations became less important and were partly abandoned. Since succession processes proceed slowly in the landscape, the extent of the consequences of land-use changes,such as forest re-growth, are only observable aftermany decades. This study presents an integrative methodical approach that allows comparisons between diverse geographical regions. The applied indicators enable an accurate monitoring of all major features of landscape change including changes in land use, landscape structuring, habitat settings, and urban sprawl. They further provide high-quality and realistic results for our study areas of Tyrol and South Tyrol.
Gilles S.,Laboratoire Mixte International Evolution Et Domestication Of Lichtyofaune Amazonienne |
Gilles S.,Montpellier University |
Gilles S.,Institute Investigaciones Of La Amazonia Peruana Iiap |
Ismino R.,Laboratoire Mixte International Evolution Et Domestication Of Lichtyofaune Amazonienne |
And 13 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2014
A prototype of an integrated closed system for fish-plankton aquaculture was developed in Iquitos (Peruvian Amazonia) in order to cultivate the Tiger Catfish, Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau, 1855). This freshwater recirculating system consisted of two linked sewage tanks with an intensive rearing unit (a cage) for P. punctifer placed in the first, and with a fish-plankton trophic chain replacing the filters commonly used in clear water closed systems. Detritivorous and zooplanktivorous fishes (Loricariidae and Cichlidae), maintained without external feeding in the sewage volume, mineralized organic matter and permitted the stabilization of the phytoplankton biomass. Water exchange and organic waste discharge were not necessary. In this paper we describe the processes undertaken to equilibrate this ecosystem: first the elimination of an un-adapted spiny alga, Golenkinia sp., whose proliferation was favored by the presence of a small rotifer, Trichocerca sp., and second the control of this rotifer proliferation via the introduction of two cichlid species, Acaronia nassa Heckel, 1840 and Satanoperca jurupari Heckel, 1840, in the sewage part. This favored some development of the green algae Nannochloris sp. and Chlorella sp. At that time we took the opportunity to begin a 3-month rearing test of P. punctifer. The mean specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of P. punctifer were 1.43 and 1.27, respectively, and the global FCR, including fish in the sewage part, was 1.08. This system has proven to be suitable for growing P. punctifer juveniles out to adult, and provides several practical advantages compared with traditional recirculating clear water systems, which use a combination of mechanical and biological filters and require periodic waste removal, leading to water and organic matter losses. © The Animal Consortium 2014.
Kim Y.,Universitatsstrasse 15 |
Harders M.,University of Innsbruck |
Gassert R.,ETH Zurich
IEEE Transactions on Haptics | Year: 2015
Delivering distance information of nearby obstacles from sensors embedded in a white cane - in addition to the intrinsic mechanical feedback from the cane - can aid the visually impaired in ambulating independently. Haptics is a common modality for conveying such information to cane users, typically in the form of vibrotactile signals. In this context, we investigated the effect of tactile rendering methods, tactile feedback configurations and directions of tactile flow on the identification of obstacle distance. Three tactile rendering methods with temporal variation only, spatio-temporal variation and spatial/temporal/intensity variation were investigated for two vibration feedback configurations. Results showed a significant interaction between tactile rendering method and feedback configuration. Spatio-temporal variation generally resulted in high correct identification rates for both feedback configurations. In the case of the four-finger vibration, tactile rendering with spatial/temporal/intensity variation also resulted in high distance identification rate. Further, participants expressed their preference for the four-finger vibration over the single-finger vibration in a survey. Both preferred rendering methods with spatio-temporal variation and spatial/temporal/intensity variation for the four-finger vibration could convey obstacle distance information with low workload. Overall, the presented findings provide valuable insights and guidance for the design of haptic displays for electronic travel aids for the visually impaired. © 2008-2011 IEEE.
Neuner L.,Universitatsstrasse 15 |
Lee G.,San Diego State University
Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Computers and Their Applications, CATA 2015 | Year: 2015
There exist many applications where one or more robots must perform complex tasks in an uncertain environment. For example, autonomous intelligent robot colonies may be used in reconnaissance missions or seekand- capture scenarios involving a complex set of interactions between machines as well as between machines and humans and may cover long distances to remote sites. Because of the nature of the tasks, new classes of robotic systems will be required that have a high level of specification for efficiency and reliability. In the project presented in this paper, a mobile robotic platform has been designed and built with two sensor modules - an ultrasonic array, along with supporting software using a certainty grid structure that can be used for range finding and obstacle avoidance and an acoustic and infrared sensor system for detecting a target. These sensor modules may be employed in several types of tasks requiring robot platforms to search through unknown environments while finding a desired target. Further, the Virtual Force Field Method for obstacle avoidance has been modified for enhanced performance. The results of this project provides an architecture that may be used in future research and real-world applications involving path planning and path tracking tasks. Copyright © 2015 by The International Society for Computers and Their Applications (ISCA).
Herstad S.J.,University of Agder |
Herstad S.J.,Innovation Norway |
Sandven T.,Innovation Norway |
Ebersberger B.,Universitatsstrasse 15 |
Ebersberger B.,TU Berlin
Research Policy | Year: 2015
This paper investigates how the strength and intrinsic characteristics of firms' knowledge bases and processing routines have evolved with the past inflow of employees. The empirical analysis is based on linked public register and innovation survey data for Norway. It finds that recruitment from universities, research institutes and higher education institutions has increased the capacity of firms to generate technical inventions. Yet, the organizational knowledge bases and processing routines on which commercial innovation output depends have been strengthened only by the recruitment that has occurred from related industries. Implications for research, management and policy are drawn. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kerdegari H.,University of Sheffield |
Kim Y.,Universitatsstrasse 15 |
Prescott T.J.,University of Sheffield
IEEE Transactions on Haptics | Year: 2016
Sensory augmentation operates by synthesizing new information then displaying it through an existing sensory channel and can be used to help people with impaired sensing or to assist in tasks where sensory information is limited or sparse, for example, when navigating in a low visibility environment. This paper presents the design of a 2nd generation head-mounted vibrotactile interface as a sensory augmentation prototype designed to present navigation commands that are intuitive, informative, and minimize information overload. We describe an experiment in a structured environment in which the user navigates along a virtual wall whilst the position and orientation of the user's head is tracked in real time by a motion capture system. Navigation commands in the form of vibrotactile feedback are presented according to the user's distance from the virtual wall and their head orientation. We test the four possible combinations of two command presentation modes (continuous, discrete) and two command types (recurring, single). We evaluated the effectiveness of this 'tactile language' according to the users' walking speed and the smoothness of their trajectory parallel to the virtual wall. Results showed that recurring continuous commands allowed users to navigate with lowest route deviation and highest walking speed. In addition, subjects preferred recurring continuous commands over other commands. © 2016 IEEE.
Labusch M.,Universitatsstrasse 15 |
Keip M.-A.,Universitatsstrasse 15 |
Shvartsman V.V.,Universitatsstrasse 15 |
Lupascu D.C.,Universitatsstrasse 15 |
Schroder J.,Universitatsstrasse 15
Technische Mechanik | Year: 2016
Of particular attention in a variety of novel technical applications is the coupling between magnetic and electric field quantities. Materials that show magneto-electric (ME) coupling could enable new smart devices in the area of electric-field-controlled magnetic-data storage or highly sensitive magnetic-field sensors. In general, ME materials exhibit both a spontaneous magnetization and a spontaneous polarization. In this respect, they feature two ferroic states at the same time and are thus termed magneto-electric multiferroics. However, all natural and most of the synthesized ME multiferroics do not show an interaction between magnetization and electric polarization in the technically relevant temperature range. Thus, there is need for alternative realizations for ME coupling materials. A promising idea lies in the design and manufacturing of ME composites. These materials consist of a magnetostrictive and a piezoelectric phase and generate the ME coupling as a strain-induced product property. Since there exists a wealth of stable magnetostrictive and piezoelectric materials at ambient temperature, such composites yield the desired ME coupling also in a technically useful temperature range. In any case, the effective ME coupling is driven by microscopic interactions between the individual phases and thus highly depends on the microstructure of the composite. This calls for powerful homogenization methods that are able to predict the effective coupling for arbitrary microstructural morphologies. Motivated by that, we apply a two-scale computational homogenization framework for magneto-electro-mechanically coupled boundary value problems, which allows us to analyze the ME composite structures and calculate the effective ME-coefficient. Furthermore, by us- ing a non-linear ferroelectric material model on the micro-level, we are able to simulate the polarization process of the ferroelectric phase. We show that this has a significant impact on the obtainable ME-coefficient. © 2016, Magdeburger Verein fur Technische Mechanik e. V. All Rights Reserved.
Schroder J.,Universitatsstrasse 15 |
Keip M.-A.,Universitatsstrasse 15
IUTAM Bookseries | Year: 2011
In this contribution, a meso-macro transition procedure for electromechanically coupled materials is presented. The utilized mesoscopic material model will be introduced and implemented into an FE2- homogenization approach. The resulting two-scale formulation is capable to compute macroscopic boundary value problems under consideration of attached heterogeneous representative volume elements at each macroscopic point. The presented direct homogenization procedure also allows for the efficient computation of effective electro-mechanical material parameters. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.
Herstad S.J.,University of Agder |
Ebersberger B.,Universitatsstrasse 15
Regional Studies | Year: 2015
Herstad S. J. and Ebersberger B. On the link between urban location and the involvement of knowledge-intensive business services firms in collaboration networks, Regional Studies. Knowledge-intensive business services firms can play a key role in modern economies by linking localized collaboration networks to global knowledge flows, and by actively serving in support of knowledge diffusion across institutional and sectoral divides. The extent to which they do is dependent on the resources available locally. This paper uses the unique establishment-level innovation data available in Norway to investigate whether location in urban labour market regions influences the geographical scope of collaborative linkages maintained within and outside the realm of clients. It proceeds to consider whether the diversity of partner types used locally, domestically and abroad differ between locations. © 2013 Regional Studies Association.