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Göttingen, Germany

Campylobacter jejuni, the most common bacterial pathogen causing gastroenteritis, shows a wide genetic diversity. Previously, we demonstrated by the combination of multi locus sequence typing (MLST)-based UPGMA-clustering and analysis of 16 genetic markers that twelve different C. jejuni subgroups can be distinguished. Among these are two prominent subgroups. The first subgroup contains the majority of hyperinvasive strains and is characterized by a dimeric form of the chemotaxis-receptor Tlp7(m+c). The second has an extended amino acid metabolism and is characterized by the presence of a periplasmic asparaginase (ansB) and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (ggt). Phyloproteomic principal component analysis (PCA) hierarchical clustering of MALDI-TOF based intact cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) spectra was able to group particular C. jejuni subgroups of phylogenetic related isolates in distinct clusters. Especially the aforementioned Tlp7(m+c)(+) and ansB+/ ggt+ subgroups could be discriminated by PCA. Overlay of ICMS spectra of all isolates led to the identification of characteristic biomarker ions for these specific C. jejuni subgroups. Thus, mass peak shifts can be used to identify the C. jejuni subgroup with an extended amino acid metabolism. Although the PCA hierarchical clustering of ICMS-spectra groups the tested isolates into a different order as compared to MLST-based UPGMA-clustering, the isolates of the indicator-groups form predominantly coherent clusters. These clusters reflect phenotypic aspects better than phylogenetic clustering, indicating that the genes corresponding to the biomarker ions are phylogenetically coupled to the tested marker genes. Thus, PCA clustering could be an additional tool for analyzing the relatedness of bacterial isolates. Source

Kiese-Himmel C.,Universitatsmedizin Gottingen
Kindheit und Entwicklung

Expressing ideas by means of drawing is a basic childhood urge. Drawing is first and foremost thought to enhance sensory-motor development and spatial thinking, which are basic requirements for the development of further cognitive functions, particularly symbol-based ones. Drawing is thus regarded as an appropriate approach in early education of young children as it enables positive transfer effects to other areas. Because promotion early of development is becoming of increasing interest in education and politics, the question of the efficacy of our educational approach to drawing is of interest. In contrast to music education, drawing has received relatively little attention in Germany in non-school children. Therefore, an important opportunity for future research emerges. Methodological problems of evaluation result from the plethora of variables associated with the training effect. Source

(Central) Auditory Processing Disorders [(C)APDs] are deficits in neural processing of auditory stimuli despite normal peripheral hearing and average intelligence. CAPDs may coexist with learning disabilities, developmental language disorders, dyslexia, or supramodal attention problems. The concept of CAPD can therefore be feasibly utilized to explain developmental and learning problems in spoken and literary language, behavioral disorders and pervasive developmental disorders. Because processing of speech acoustic stimuli differs from that of nonspeech acoustic stimuli, speech perception may be considered, at best, a special case of auditory perception. Hitherto, causal relations between impaired auditory functions and clinical disorders have not been proved satisfactorily. Studies backed by stronger levels of evidential support coupled with an untrained control group are therefore necessary. © Hogrefe Verlag, Göttingen 2011. Source

Zautner A.E.,Universitatsmedizin Gottingen
Recent Patents on Inflammation and Allergy Drug Discovery

Adenotonsillar disease (adenoiditis and recurrent tonsillitis) is a prevalent otolaryngologic disorder aetiologi-cally based on chronic inflammation triggered by a persistent bacterial infection. These bacteria, mostly Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus sp., and Streptococcus sp., persist predominantly intracellular and within mucosal biofilms. The recurrent or chronic inflammation of the adenoids and faucial tonsils leads to chronic activation of the cell-mediated and humoral immune response, resulting in hypertrophy of the lymphoid tonsillar tissue. This hypertrophic tissue is the cause for the prominent clinical symptoms: obstruction of the upper airways, snoring, and sleep apnea for adenoiditis or sore throat, dysphagia and halitosis for recurrent tonsillitis. Treatment strategies should target the persisting bacteria within their biofilm or intracellular shelter. Macrolide antibiotics like clarithromycin are able to modulate the immune system and to interfere in bacterial signaling within biofilms. Clindamycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and oritavancin are intracel-lular high active compounds. Surgical removal of the hypertrophic tissue by modern procedures like laser tonsil ablation, eliminates not only a mechanical obstacle of the airways, it removes also the basis for the aetiologic cause, the "biofilm carrier". This review summarizes the role of bacterial persistence in mucosal biofilms for the aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of adenotonsillar disease and relevant patents. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Burckhardt G.,Universitatsmedizin Gottingen
Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Common to all so far functionally characterized Organic Anion Transporters (OATs) is their broad substrate specificity and their ability to exchange extracellular against intracellular organic anions. Many OATs occur in renal proximal tubules, the site of active drug secretion. Exceptions are murine Oat6 (nasal epithelium), human OAT7 (liver), and rat Oat8 (renal collecting ducts). In human kidneys, OAT1, OAT2, and OAT3 are localized in the basolateral membrane, and OAT4, OAT10, and URAT1 in the apical cell membrane of proximal tubule cells, respectively. In rats and mice, Oat1 and Oat3 are located basolaterally, and Oat2, Oat5, Oat9, Oat10, and Urat1 apically. Several classes of drugs interact with human OAT1-3, including ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, diuretics, HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, β-lactam antibiotics, antineoplastic and antiviral drugs, and uricosuric drugs. For most drugs, interaction was demonstrated in vitro by inhibition of OAT-mediated transport of model substrates; for some drugs, transport by OATs was directly proven. Based on IC50 values reported in the literature, OAT1 and OAT3 show comparable affinities for diuretics, cephalosporins, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs whereas OAT2 has a lower affinity to most of these compounds. Drug-drug interactions at OAT1 and OAT3 may retard renal drug secretion and cause untoward effects. OAT4, OAT10, and URAT1 in the apical membrane contribute to proximal tubular urate absorption, and OAT10 to nicotinate absorption. OAT4 is in addition able to release drugs, e.g. diuretics, into the tubule lumen. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

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