Rollig C.,TU Dresden |
Knop S.,Universitatsklinikum Wurzburg |
Bornhauser M.,TU Dresden
The Lancet | Year: 2015
Summary Multiple myeloma is a malignant disease characterised by proliferation of clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow and typically accompanied by the secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulins that are detectable in the serum or urine. Increased understanding of the microenvironmental interactions between malignant plasma cells and the bone marrow niche, and their role in disease progression and acquisition of therapy resistance, has helped the development of novel therapeutic drugs for use in combination with cytostatic therapy. Together with autologous stem cell transplantation and advances in supportive care, the use of novel drugs such as proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs has increased response rates and survival substantially in the past several years. Present clinical research focuses on the balance between treatment efficacy and quality of life, the optimum sequencing of treatment options, the question of long-term remission and potential cure by multimodal treatment, the pre-emptive treatment of high-risk smouldering myeloma, and the role of maintenance. Upcoming results of ongoing clinical trials, together with a pipeline of promising new treatments, raise the hope for continuous improvements in the prognosis of patients with myeloma in the future. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Kruis W.,Evangelisches Krankenhaus Kalk |
Germer C.-T.,Universitatsklinikum Wurzburg |
Leifeld L.,Medizinische Klinik 3 Gastroenterologie und Allgemeine Innere Medizin
Digestion | Year: 2014
Background: Diverticular disease is one of the most common disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. 28-45% of the population develop colonic diverticula, while about 25% suffer symptoms and about 5% complications. Aim: To create formal guidelines for diagnosis and management. Methods: Six working groups with 44 participants analyzed key questions in subject areas assigned to them. Following a systematic literature search, 451 publications were included. Consensus was obtained by agreement within the working groups, two Delphi processes and a guideline conference. Results: Targeted management of diverticular disease requires a classificatory diagnosis. A new classification was created. In addition to the clinical examination, intestinal ultrasound or computed tomography is the determining factor. Interval colonoscopy is recommended to exclude comorbidities. A low-fiber diet, obesity, lack of exercise, smoking and immunosuppression have an adverse impact on diverticulosis. This can lead to diverticulitis. Antibiotics are no longer recommended in uncomplicated diverticulitis if no risk factors such as immunosuppression are present. If close monitoring is ensured, uncomplicated diverticulitis can be treated on an outpatient basis. Complicated diverticulitis should be treated in hospital, involving broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, where necessary abscess drainage, and surgery, if possible laparoscopically. In the case of chronic relapsing diverticulitis, the risk of perforation decreases with each episode, so that surgery is no longer recommended after the second episode but only following individual assessment. Conclusions: New findings on diverticular disease call into question the overuse of antibiotics and excessive indications for surgery. Targeted treatment requires a precise diagnosis and intensive interdisciplinary cooperation. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Vorlova S.,Universitatsklinikum Wurzburg
Oncogene | Year: 2016
The inadequate transport of drugs into the tumor tissue caused by its abnormal vasculature is a major obstacle to the treatment of cancer. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) drugs can cause phenotypic alteration and maturation of the tumor’s vasculature. However, whether this consistently improves delivery and subsequent response to therapy is still controversial. Clinical results indicate that not all patients benefit from antiangiogenic treatment, necessitating the development of criteria to predict the effect of these agents in individual tumors. We demonstrate that, in anti-VEGF-refractory murine tumors, vascular changes after VEGF ablation result in reduced delivery leading to therapeutic failure. In these tumors, the impaired response after anti-VEGF treatment is directly linked to strong deposition of fibrillar extracellular matrix (ECM) components and high expression of lysyl oxidases. The resulting condensed, highly crosslinked ECM impeded drug permeation, protecting tumor cells from exposure to small-molecule drugs. The reduced vascular density after anti-VEGF treatment further decreased delivery in these tumors, an effect not compensated by the improved vessel quality. Pharmacological inhibition of lysyl oxidases improved drug delivery in various tumor models and reversed the negative effect of VEGF ablation on drug delivery and therapeutic response in anti-VEGF-resistant tumors. In conclusion, the vascular changes after anti-VEGF therapy can have a context-dependent negative impact on overall therapeutic efficacy. A determining factor is the tumor ECM, which strongly influences the effect of anti-VEGF therapy. Our results reveal the prospect to revert a possible negative effect and to potentiate responsiveness to antiangiogenic therapy by concomitantly targeting ECM-modifying enzymes.Oncogene advance online publication, 6 June 2016; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.182. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited
Von Rahden B.H.A.,University of Wurzburg |
Von Rahden B.H.A.,Universitatsklinikum Wurzburg |
Germer C.-T.,University of Wurzburg
Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery | Year: 2012
Purpose: This paper aims to review the current evidence regarding pathogenesis of colonic diverticular disease and its complications, which are a major health problem in the Western world. Methods: Based on selective Medline searches, relevant literature was indentified regarding pathogenesis of (1) diverticulosis/ formation of diverticula, (2) diverticulitis/inflammation of diverticula, (3) complicated diverticulitis/perforation, and (4) diverticular bleeding. Results: Pathogenesis of colonic diverticula is regarded as a multifactorial process, involving dietary factors (Western low-fiber diet), structural changes of the colonic wall (altered musculature, collagen, elastin, etc.) and functional changes (motility disorder, increased intraluminal pressure). Genetic changes are also discussed and aging is also a key factor. Pathogenesis of inflammation (diverticulosis) is regarded as a result of microperforations at the fundus of the diverticulum, and not an abscessed diverticulum due to an impacted fecolith. Histamine and its receptors do also seem to play a role, corresponding with the promising prophylactic approach with probiotics. Pathogenesis of complicated diverticulitis is characterized by perforation, which is the cardinal feature. Furthermore, an intensive inflammatory infiltrate with macrophages is found in surgical specimens, even after antibiotic pretreatment. Steroid intake and immunosuppression are risk factors and only recently a glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor-receptor has been suggested to resemble the molecular link. Diverticular bleeding is a distinct disease process - which does usually take place without diverticulitis - and is due to eccentric rupture of the vas rectum. Conclusions: The pathophysiology of diverticular disease is multifactorial. Some of the current evidence has important implications for clinical practice, e.g., the suggested role of steroid intake and immunosuppression for complicated diverticulitis. © Springer-Verlag 2012.
Zernecke A.,Universitatsklinikum Wurzburg
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology | Year: 2015
Atherosclerotic vascular disease is driven by chronic inflammation involving both innate and adaptive immune responses. Dendritic cells (DCs) are found in healthy arteries and accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions and engage in diverse pathogenic and protective mechanisms during atherogenesis. DCs contribute to early foam cell formation, regulate lipid metabolism, and control pro- and antiatherosclerotic T-cell responses by multifarious mechanisms. We, here, review the roles of DCs and plasmacytoid DCs in experimental models of atherosclerosis and the approaches to target DCs in therapeutic vaccination strategies. We, furthermore, discuss the evidence of the potential function of DCs in human atherosclerosis, and dissect the efforts to harness DC subsets as biomarkers of disease. Finally, we discuss necessary future steps that will help to understand the specific contribution of bona fide DCs in atherosclerosis to move toward novel therapeutic approaches. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.