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Neu-Ulm, Germany

Since the earliest beginnings of using X-rays, two forms of examination techniques have been known: X-ray imaging and projection onto films. The new technology very rapidly became widespread. Just a few months after the discovery of the so-called X-rays, the first fluoroscopes (instruments for visualizing internal structures) were constructed and constantly improved upon. If the operation took place in bright light, a cryptoscope was needed for examination. Since 1984 fluoroscopic examinations or interventions performed under X-ray control are only permitted when systems are used that are equipped with an image intensifier video chain or a digital image receiver with TV monitor.At about the beginning of the new century the first digital imaging systems with solid-state detectors were put into service. Flat panel detectors offer high-quality imaging with good spatial resolution and contrast recognition. At the present time, storable intraoperative three-dimensional diagnostic imaging is available. © Springer-Verlag 2012. Source


Raschbichler V.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Lieber D.,Universitatsklinikum Ulm | Bailer S.M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
Traffic | Year: 2012

Transport of proteins between cytoplasm and nucleus is mediated by transport factors of the importin α- and β-families and occurs along a gradient of the small GTPase Ran. To date, in vivo analysis as well as prediction of protein nuclear export remain tedious and difficult. We generated a novel bipartite assay called NEX-TRAP (Nuclear EXport Trapped by RAPamycin) for in vivo analysis of protein nuclear export. The assay is based on the rapamycin-induced dimerization of the modules FRB (FK506-rapamycin (FR)-binding domain) and FKBP (FK506-binding protein-12): a potential nuclear export cargo is fused to FRB, to EYFP for direct visualization as well as to an SV40-derived nuclear localization signal (NLS) for constitutive nuclear import. An integral membrane protein that resides at the trans Golgi network (TGN) is fused to a cytoplasmically exposed FKBP and serves as reporter. EYFP-NLS-FRB fusion proteins with export activity accumulate in the nucleus at steady state but continuously shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm. Rapamycin-induced dimerization of FRB and FKBP at the TGN traps the shuttling protein outside of the nucleus, making nuclear export permanent. Using several example cargoes, we show that the NEX-TRAP is superior to existing assays owing to its ease of use, its sensitivity and accuracy. Analysis of large numbers of export cargoes is facilitated by recombinational cloning. The NEX-TRAP holds the promise of applicability in automated fluorescence imaging for systematic analysis of nuclear export, thereby improving in silico prediction of nuclear export sequences. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source


Noll-Hussong M.,Universitatsklinikum Ulm
Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie und Geriatrie | Year: 2014

Background: Clinically relevant posttraumatic stress disorders are almost always associated with physical symptoms, which are, on the one hand, classified as somatoform and, on the other hand, may also present as somatic comorbidities. The psychological, neurobiological, endocrinological and immunological correlations are only now beginning to be understood. Thereby, integration into a meaningful biopsychosocial model is still pending. Purpose: The following article gives a concise summary of the knowledge concerning the relationship between body and psyche in posttraumatic stress spectrum disorders and provides the neuroscientific foundation which could establish a biological link between the phenomenologies of the disorder. Results: Neurobiological data on posttraumatic disorders and somatoform disorders are diverse and not uniform. This is even more true when it comes to those disorders that are within the intersection of these two entities and, above all, their special features in the elderly. Psychophysiological, neuroanatomical, endocrine-immunological, genetic, and epigenetic factors play an important role here. With regard to posttraumatic stress disorder, for example, higher autonomic reactivity was observed, which indicates an acquired general sensitization of the nervous system. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Bruns H.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Stenger S.,Universitatsklinikum Ulm
Future Microbiology | Year: 2014

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a facultative intracellular pathogen. It infects macrophages where it avoids elimination by interfering with host defense mechanisms. Until recently, it was assumed that the acidification of phagosomes is the major strategy of macrophages to eliminate M. tuberculosis. However, there is emerging evidence demonstrating that human macrophages are equipped with additional antimicrobial effector functions. Specifically, autophagy, efferocytosis and antimicrobial peptides have been identified as mechanisms to restrict mycobacterial proliferation. Here we review recent findings on effector functions of human macrophages and mechanisms of the pathogen to interfere with them. © 2014 Future Medicine Ltd. Source


Background: Hemoglobinopathies are among the most common inherited diseases around the world. They have become much more common recently in northern and central Europe, including Germany, due to immigration. Method: Selective review of the literature with consideration of national guidelines. Results: The hemoglobinopathies encompass all genetic diseases of hemoglobin. They fall into two main groups: thalassemia syndromes and structural hemoglobin variants (abnormal hemoglobins). α- and β-thalassemia are the main types of thalassemia; the main structural hemoglobin variants are HbS, HbE and HbC. There are many subtypes and combined types in each group. The highly variable clinical manifestations of the hemoglobinopathies range from mild hypochromic anemia to moderate hematological disease to severe, lifelong, transfusion-dependent anemia with multiorgan involvement. Stem-cell transplantation is the preferred treatment for the severe forms of thalassemia. Supportive, rather than curative, treatment consists of periodic blood transfusions for life, combined with iron chelation. Drugs to treat the symptoms of sickle-cell disease include analgesics, antibiotics, ACE inhibitors and hydroxyurea. Blood transfusions should be given only when strictly indicated. More than 90% of patients currently survive into adulthood. Optimally treated patients have a projected life span of 50 to 60 years. Conclusion: Hemoglobinopathies are a public health issue in today's multiethnic German population. Adequate care of the affected patients requires a wide variety of diagnostic and therapeutic measures. Source

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