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Frankfurt am Main, Germany

In February 2013 the Committee of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Task Force published the amended version of the "Practice guidelines for management of the difficult airway" which replace the recommendations from 2003. The amended version re-evaluated the recommendations from 2003 in 2011, evaluated recently published studies and recommendations and included them in the new practice guidelines. In particular, new technical developments, such as the recently established video-assisted intubation procedure were taken into consideration. Despite the many publications in the field of airway management the evidence resulting from the data obtained from recent publications is so low that the new information does not necessitate any amendments to the existing guidelines. In short, the current guidelines basically correspond to the previous version published 10 years ago but are, however, more than twice as extensive. This article summarizes and comments on the cornerstones of the guidelines. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Background: Cochlear implantation with the aim of hearing preservation for combined electric–acoustic stimulation (EAS) is the therapy of choice for patients with residual low-frequency hearing. Preserved residual acoustic hearing has a positive effect on speech intelligibility in difficult noise conditions. Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess speech reception thresholds in various complex noise conditions for patients with EAS in comparison with patients using bilateral cochlear implants (CI). Materials and methods: Speech perception in noise was measured for bilateral CI and EAS patient groups. A total of 22 listeners with normal hearing served as a control group. Speech reception thresholds (SRT) were measured using a closed-set sentence matrix test. Speech was presented with a single source in frontal position; noise was presented in frontal position or in a multisource noise field (MSNF) consisting of a four-loudspeaker array with independent noise sources. Modulated speech-simulating noise and pseudocontinuous noise served respectively as interference signal with different temporal characteristics. Results: The average SRTs in the EAS group were significantly better in all test conditions than those of the group with bilateral CI. Both user groups showed significant improvement in the MSNF condition compared with the frontal noise condition as a result of bilateral interaction. The normal-hearing control group was able to use short temporal gaps in modulated noise to improve speech perception in noise (gap listening). This effect was absent in both implanted user groups. Conclusion: Patients with combined EAS in one ear and a hearing aid in the contralateral ear show significantly improved speech perception in complex noise conditions compared with bilateral CI recipients. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Objective: Vitamin D is not only essential for bone metabolism, but also has an additional immune-modulating effect on the immune system, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of several endocrine diseases. Aim: In this review, we debate the effects and recommendations of vitamin D supplementation, especially in the context of the nonclassical effects. Results: Evidence from animal model and epidemiological studies supports a role for vitamin D in many endocrine conditions. Vitamin D supplementation may play a role in the prevention of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: Although observational studies support a potential role of vitamin D in endocrine disease, high-quality evidence from clinical trials to establish a place for vitamin D supplementation in optimizing endocrine health are lacking. Based on observational studies, vitamin D deficiency should probably be avoided in individuals at high risk of developing type 1 diabetes, specifically in early life. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Mohr J.P.,Columbia University | Parides M.K.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Stapf C.,Columbia University | Stapf C.,Paris West University Nanterre La Defense | And 17 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2014

Background: The clinical benefit of preventive eradication of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations remains uncertain. A Randomised trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous malformations (ARUBA) aims to compare the risk of death and symptomatic stroke in patients with an unruptured brain arteriovenous malformation who are allocated to either medical management alone or medical management with interventional therapy. Methods: Adult patients (≥18 years) with an unruptured brain arteriovenous malformation were enrolled into this trial at 39 clinical sites in nine countries. Patients were randomised (by web-based system, in a 1:1 ratio, with random permuted block design [block size 2, 4, or 6], stratified by clinical site) to medical management with interventional therapy (ie, neurosurgery, embolisation, or stereotactic radiotherapy, alone or in combination) or medical management alone (ie, pharmacological therapy for neurological symptoms as needed). Patients, clinicians, and investigators are aware of treatment assignment. The primary outcome is time to the composite endpoint of death or symptomatic stroke; the primary analysis is by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00389181. Findings: Randomisation was started on April 4, 2007, and was stopped on April 15, 2013, when a data and safety monitoring board appointed by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke of the National Institutes of Health recommended halting randomisation because of superiority of the medical management group (log-rank Z statistic of 4.10, exceeding the prespecified stopping boundary value of 2.87). At this point, outcome data were available for 223 patients (mean follow-up 33.3 months [SD 19.7]), 114 assigned to interventional therapy and 109 to medical management. The primary endpoint had been reached by 11 (10.1%) patients in the medical management group compared with 35 (30.7%) in the interventional therapy group. The risk of death or stroke was significantly lower in the medical management group than in the interventional therapy group (hazard ratio 0.27, 95% CI 0.14-0.54). No harms were identified, other than a higher number of strokes (45 vs 12, p<0.0001) and neurological deficits unrelated to stroke (14 vs 1, p=0.0008) in patients allocated to interventional therapy compared with medical management. Interpretation: The ARUBA trial showed that medical management alone is superior to medical management with interventional therapy for the prevention of death or stroke in patients with unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations followed up for 33 months. The trial is continuing its observational phase to establish whether the disparities will persist over an additional 5 years of follow-up.

Koch C.,Universitatsklinikum Frankfurt | Trojan J.,Universitatsklinikum Frankfurt
Digestion | Year: 2015

Background: Gastrointestinal cancers are among the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In different tumor types, personalized systemic treatment strategies based upon biomarker-selection were established over the last years. Although there is a flood of targeted agents in clinical development, only a few targeted agents with a predictive biomarker could be established for the treatment of patients with gastrointestinal cancer patients so far. Summary: Currently, predictive biomarkers for gastrointestinal cancers include Her2 overexpression or amplification (gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma), c-Kit overexpression (gastrointestinal stromal tumors) and RAS wild-type (colorectal cancer). Selection of patients based on these biomarkers allows the efficient use of targeted agents. The presence of a BRAF mutation and/or high microsatellite instability is prognostic and rather a predictive marker in CRC. Promising candidate markers in advanced clinical development are MET amplification in gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma, Met overexpression and high AFP serum levels in hepatocellular carcinoma. Key Message: Biomarker-guided systemic treatment is established in a subset of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Ongoing clinical trials and further advances in high-throughput technologies will hopefully result in more personalized systemic treatment strategies for these patients in the near future. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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