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Dresden, Germany

Schaich M.,Universitatsklinikum Dresden
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013

To assess the treatment outcome benefit of multiagent consolidation in young adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial. Between December 2003 and November 2009, 1,179 patients (median age, 48 years; range, 16 to 60 years) with untreated AML were randomly assigned at diagnosis to receive either standard high-dose cytarabine consolidation with three cycles of 18 g/m(2) (3× HD-AraC) or multiagent consolidation with two cycles of mitoxantrone (30 mg/m(2)) plus cytarabine (12 g/m(2)) and one cycle of amsacrine (500 mg/m(2)) plus cytarabine (10 g/m(2); MAC/MAMAC/MAC). Allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantations were performed in a risk-adapted and priority-based manner. After double induction therapy using a 3 + 7 regimen including standard-dose cytarabine and daunorubicin, complete remission was achieved in 65% of patients. In the primary efficacy population of patients evaluable for consolidation outcomes, consolidation with either 3× HD-AraC or MAC/MAMC/MAC did not result in any significant difference in 3-year overall (69% v 64%; P = .18) or disease-free survival (46% v 48%; P = .99) according to the intention-to-treat analysis. Furthermore, MAC/MAMAC/MAC led to additional GI and hepatic toxicity and a higher rate of infection and bleeding, resulting in significantly shorter 3-year overall survival in the per-protocol analysis compared with 3× HD-AraC (63% v 72%; P = .04). In younger adults with AML, multiagent consolidation using mitoxantrone and amsacrine in combination with high-dose cytarabine does not improve treatment outcome and confers additional toxicity.

Guckenberger M.,University of Wurzburg | Allgauer M.,Barmherzige Bruder | Appold S.,Universitatsklinikum Dresden | Dieckmann K.,University of Vienna | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology | Year: 2013

INTRODUCTION: To evaluate safety and efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a patterns-of-care and patterns-of-outcome analysis. METHODS: The working group "Extracranial Stereotactic Radiotherapy" of the German Society for Radiation Oncology performed a retrospective multicenter analysis of practice and outcome after SBRT for stage I NSCLC. Sixteen German and Austrian centers with experience in pulmonary SBRT were asked to participate. RESULTS: Data of 582 patients treated at 13 institutions between 1998 and 2011 were collected; all institutions, except one, were academic hospitals. A time trend to more advanced radiotherapy technologies and escalated irradiation doses was observed, but patient characteristics (age, performance status, pulmonary function) remained stable over time. Interinstitutional variability was substantial in all treatment characteristics but not in patient characteristics. After an average follow-up of 21 months, 3-year freedom from local progression (FFLP) and overall survival (OS) were 79.6% and 47.1%, respectively. The biological effective dose was the most significant factor influencing FFLP and OS: after more than 106 Gy biological effective dose as planning target volume encompassing dose (N = 164), 3-year FFLP and OS were 92.5% and 62.2%, respectively. No evidence of a learning curve or improvement of results with larger SBRT experience and implementation of new radiotherapy technologies was observed. CONCLUSION: SBRT for stage I NSCLC was safe and effective in this multi-institutional, academic environment, despite considerable interinstitutional variability and time trends in SBRT practice. Radiotherapy dose was identified as a major treatment factor influencing local tumor control and OS. © 2013 by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer.

Gunther C.,Universitatsklinikum Dresden
Hautarzt | Year: 2015

Lupus erythematosus is a prototypic autoimmune disease that can be triggered in genetically predisposed individuals by environmental exposures. The disease is based on an uncontrolled activation of the immune system that recognizes self antigens and induces inflammatory disease flares. The multifactorial pathogenesis is based on a polygenic model of inheritance with multiple various susceptibility genes elevating the disease risk. Many of these polymorphisms have been recently identified by genome-wide association studies. Monogenic forms of lupus erythematosus are rare. The identification of their underlying pathogenesis is important for the recognition of main mechanistic pathways in lupus as demonstrated by the history of defects in the complement system. The monogenic, autosomal dominant inherited familial chilblain lupus is characterized by cold-induced infiltrates on acral locations occurring in early childhood. Molecular exploration of the disease pathogenesis revealed that autoimmunity and especially lupus erythematosus can be induced by defects in intracellular elimination of nucleic acids and the subsequent type I-IFN-dependent activation of the innate immune system. This mechanism extends the concept of lupus pathogenesis: both defects in the extra- and intracellular elimination of autoantigens can lead to activation of the innate and adaptive immune system © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Reiss M.,Elblandkliniken Meissen | Reiss G.,Universitatsklinikum Dresden
Medizinische Monatsschrift fur Pharmazeuten | Year: 2010

The chronic otitis media is defined as a permanent perforation of the drum membrane, which does not close by itself, and an inflammatory reaction in the mucosa (mucositis) of the middle ear. Two main forms of the chronic otitis media are distinct: the suppurative otitis media and the cholesteatoma. The suppurative otitis media is often accompanied by secretion into the external ear canal (otorrhoe), but "dry ears" are also common. Other frequent, but not obligatory symptoms are hearing impairment, tinnitus, and aural pain or pressure. Although genetically determined microbial and immunological factors, as well as Eustachian tube characteristics, are supposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic suppurative otitis media, many aspects of the pathogenesis still need to be clarified. Ear microscopy will show the perforation in the drum membrane. Further diagnostic tools are audiometry, vestibular testing, radiological examination (high-resolution computed tomography) and microbiological investigation. The curative treatment for chronic suppurative otitis media is surgery (tympanoplasty, i.e. closure of the perforation in the drum membrane and also - if necessary - the reconstruction of the ossicular chain), not conservative antimicrobial therapy.

Fitze G.,Universitatsklinikum Dresden
Trauma und Berufskrankheit | Year: 2016

Background: Accidents are the main cause of death between the ages of 1 and 20 years. Blunt abdominal trauma occurs in approximately 5 % of cases resulting in organ injury within the abdomen in about 25 %. The organs most involved are the kidneys and spleen followed by the liver, pancreas and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Diagnostics: In the field of radiological diagnostics ultrasound is the most important procedure in children. The indications for an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan should be critically evaluated in the context of the clinical findings and the therapeutic consequences. Therapy: With only a few exceptions the non-operative management of abdominal organ injuries has become the established approach for children. This approach has been evaluated for spleen and liver injuries and is increasingly being applied for kidney injuries but in some rare cases a secondary nephrectomy is still necessary. For pancreatic injuries the non-operative management is also successful if the pancreatic duct is not involved. In contrast, in nearly all cases of injuries of the GI tract a primary laparotomy is necessary but generally, a laparotomy should be avoided. The preservation of the organ is the primary target of therapy. The indications for a surgical approach are circulation instability, perforation of the GI tract and peritonitis. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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