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München, Germany

For some entities, the spectrum and also the histomorphological pattern of pediatric lung diseases vary substantially from those of adults. Furthermore, some diseases are specific for neonates and infants, such as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and the now mostly prenatally already known congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM). The histopathological aspects of various pediatric lung pathologies are presented in this article. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Although NG2 glial cells represent a frequent glial cell type in the brain, characterized by expression of the NG2 proteoglycan, the functional impact of these cells is still enigmatic. A large proportion of NG2 glia is proliferative active throughout live. These cells express a plethora of ion channels and transmitter receptors, which enable them to detect neuronal activity. Intriguingly, NG2 glial cells receive synaptic input from glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Since these postsynaptic glial currents are very small, their spatial and temporal integration mighttplay an important role. In white matter, most NG2 glial cells differentiate into oligodendrocytes and this process might be influenced through the activity of the above mentioned neuronglia synapses. Increasing evidence suggests that the properties of NG2 glia vary across brain regions, albeit the impact of this variability is not understood. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015.

Barth J.,Universitatsklinik
Krankenhauspharmazie | Year: 2013

Oral tumor therapeutics exist since the 1960ies. The eldest substances are chlorambucil and mercaptopurine, other followed, and are, from the present point of view, "old fellows". In the 1990ies, some more "classical", oral available cytotoxics joined the group. From the 2000-years the so called small molecular kinase inhibitors established in the clinical routine - with growing number. From the pharmaceutical perspective, there is a need for highly sophisticated skills in specialist knowledge and consulting service to the patient and the circle of experts. This applies for the "old" and the "new" drugs.

Inclusive education in schools for children with chronic disorders or handicaps is increasingly demanded by parents. It is a challenge for the society. This overview shall facilitate professional pediatric advice for parents and teachers. Inclusive education in common schools with joint learning of all students has various aims: graduation, individual educational success, development of the personality, and self-determined, active participation in the society. Inclusive education works with equal and diffent aims, with individual plans and adapted teaching materials. Disadvatages have to be compensated to compare individual performance. Persons with different professions and qualifications have to cooperate inside and outside the classes. Different laws, regulations and institutions have to be considered for the costs of inclusive education. The impact of chronic diseases like diabetes, epilepsy or ADHD, and of various handicaps on daily life in school is tremendous. The affected children suffer from exclusion from school activities and from the other students. Some students with handicaps are unable to cope with the demands of a common school in its actual structure. Parents and teachers need information on typical health problems, behavioral peculiarities and necessary interventions. Faithful consultations help to diminish fears of parents and teachers. Inclusive education should be achieved actively, deliberately and stepwise.

Lunkenheimer P.P.,Universitatsklinik | Niederer P.,University of Zurich | Sanchez-Quintana D.,University of Badajoz | Murillo M.,University of Badajoz | Smerup M.,Aarhus University Hospital
Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research | Year: 2013

The architectural arrangement of cardiomyocytes aggregated together within the ventricular walls remains controversial. Two models currently attract clinical attention, with neither model standing rigorous anatomical scrutiny. The first is based on the notion that ventricular mass can be unraveled consistently to produce a unique myocardial band. The second model was initially based on the notion that cardiomyocytes were bundled together in uniform fashion, with fibrous shelves interposed in transmural fashion. This concept was subsequently modified to accept the fact that the fibrous matrix supporting the cardiomyocytes within the ventricular walls does not form transmural sheets. Current observations demonstrate that not all cardiomyocytes are aggregated together in tangential fashion. A significant netting component is aligned in obliquely intruding and transversal fashion. The interaction between the tangential and transversal chains of cardiomyocytes with the fibrous matrix produces antagonistic forces, with both unloading and auxotonic forces necessary to explain normal and abnormal cardiodynamics. This article is part of a JCTR special issue on Cardiac Anatomy. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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