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PubMed | French National Institute for Agricultural Research and Universitats Klinikum Essen
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2016

Depression and metabolic disorders, including overweight and obesity, appear tightly interrelated. The prevalence of these conditions is concurrently growing worldwide, and both depression and overweight/obesity represent substantial risk factors for multiple medical complications. Moreover, there is now multiple evidence for a bidirectional relationship between depression and increased adiposity, with overweight/obesity being associated with an increased prevalence of depression, and in turn, depression augmenting the risk of weight gain and obesity. Although the reasons for this intricate link between depression and increased adiposity remain unclear, converging clinical and preclinical evidence points to a critical role for inflammatory processes and related alterations of brain functions. In support of this notion, increased adiposity leads to a chronic low-grade activation of inflammatory processes, which have been shown elsewhere to have a potent role in the pathophysiology of depression. It is therefore highly possible that adiposity-driven inflammation contributes to the development of depressive disorders and their growing prevalence worldwide. This review will present recent evidence in support of this hypothesis and will discuss the underlying mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets. Altogether, findings presented here should help to better understand the mechanisms linking adiposity to depression and facilitate the identification of new preventive and/or therapeutic strategies.

Braun J.-P.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Bause H.,Klinik fur Anasthesiologie und Operative Intensivmedizin | Bloos F.,Universitatsklinikum Jena | Geldner G.,Klinik fur Anasthesiologie | And 9 more authors.
Anasthesiologie und Intensivmedizin | Year: 2010

Critical care medicine usually involves the implementation of measures resulting in significant consequences for the pa tient - including possible mistakes arising directly or indirectly from daily routine processes. In addition, an ever-widening range of pharmaceutical and technological options may also often have an impact. The increasing complex ity of pharmaceuticals and technical aids must be monitored and taken into account. The need for 24-hour care requires the daily presence of a variety of IC specialists and the interchange of data. Immediate coordinated expert action is equally as important as profession al competence in dealing with current limitations of medical science. Intensivists are increasingly being confronted with the demands of profession al quality management requirements within the ICU. This aspect is highlighted by the Vienna declaration on ICU patient safety drawn up at the 2009 European Congress of the ESICM [1]. This includes a commitment to actively pursue quality management within the setting of intensive care medicine. The present article describes a practical and effective approach to this complex subject matter and the external evaluation of critical care by peer review, which has already been successfully implemented in Germany and is set to gain in significance. © Anästh Intensivmed 2010.

Boehringer S.,Leiden University | Boehringer S.,Universitats Klinikum Essen | Van Der Lijn F.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Liu F.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | And 18 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2011

Recent genome-wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P), and other previous studies showed distinctly differing facial distance measurements when comparing unaffected relatives of NSCL/P patients with normal controls. Here, we test the hypothesis that genetic loci involved in NSCL/P also influence normal variation in facial morphology. We tested 11 SNPs from 10 genomic regions previously showing replicated evidence of association with NSCL/P for association with normal variation of nose width and bizygomatic distance in two cohorts from Germany (N=529) and the Netherlands (N=2497). The two most significant associations found were between nose width and SNP rs1258763 near the GREM1 gene in the German cohort (P=6 × 10 4), and between bizygomatic distance and SNP rs987525 at 8q24.21 near the CCDC26 gene (P=0.017) in the Dutch sample. A genetic prediction model explained 2% of phenotype variation in nose width in the German and 0.5% of bizygomatic distance variation in the Dutch cohort. Although preliminary, our data provide a first link between genetic loci involved in a pathological facial trait such as NSCL/P and variation of normal facial morphology. Moreover, we present a first approach for understanding the genetic basis of human facial appearance, a highly intriguing trait with implications on clinical practice, clinical genetics, forensic intelligence, social interactions and personal identity. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

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