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Aurori A.C.,Universitatea Of Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara | Aurori A.C.,Babes - Bolyai University | Bobis O.,Universitatea Of Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara | Dezmirean D.S.,Universitatea Of Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara | And 3 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2016

Viral diseases are one of the multiple factors associated with honeybee colony losses. Apart from their innate immune system, including the RNAi machinery, honeybees can use secondary plant metabolites to reduce or fully cure pathogen infections. Here, we tested the antiviral potential of Laurus nobilis leaf ethanolic extracts on forager honeybees naturally infected with BQCV (Black queen cell virus). Total viral loads were reduced even at the lowest concentration tested (1 mg/ml). Higher extract concentrations (≥5 mg/ml) significantly reduced virus replication. Measuring vitellogenin gene expression as an indicator for transcript homeostasis revealed constant RNA levels before and after treatment, suggesting that its expression was not impacted by the L. nobilis treatment. In conclusion, plant secondary metabolites can reduce virus loads and virus replication in naturally infected honeybees. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Buttstedt A.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Buttstedt A.,Universitatea Of Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara | Wostradowski T.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Ihling C.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | And 3 more authors.
Amyloid | Year: 2013

In vitro amyloid formation has been suggested to be a common property of any polypeptide chain depending on particular environmental conditions although in vivo amyloid fibril formation can be promoted by point mutations or triplet expansions. Here, we explored the influence of agitation on fibril formation of amyloidogenic alanine segments fused to Cold Shock Protein B (CspB) of Bacillus subtilis. While without agitation fibril formation was clearly dependent on the presence of an amyloidogenic alanine segment, fibril formation was independent of the amyloidogenic segment under agitation. Agitation even led to fibrillation of native CspB lacking the amyloidogenic segment. Furthermore, agitation not only influenced the kinetics of fibril formation, but also resulted in completely different fibril morphologies. These results indicate that experimental conditions can alter the region that undergoes a conformational change during in vitro fibrillation. Moreover, the data show that deductions from in vitro assays on in vivo fibril formation mechanisms are afflicted with a certain degree of uncertainty and therefore need to be cautiously discussed. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved.

Erler S.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Erler S.,Universitatea Of Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara | Popp M.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Wolf S.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | And 2 more authors.
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2012

Local adaptation within host-parasite systems can evolve by several non-exclusive drivers (e.g., host species-genetic adaptation; ecological conditions-ecological adaptation, and time-temporal adaptation). Social insects, especially bumblebees, with an annual colony life history not only provide an ideal system to test parasite transmission within and between different host colonies, but also parasite adaptation to specific host species and environments. Here, we study local adaptation in a multiple-host parasite characterized by high levels of horizontal transmission. Crithidia bombi occurs as a gut parasite in several bumblebee species. Parasites were sampled fromfive different host species in two subsequent years. Population genetic tools were used to test for the several types of adaptation. Although we found no evidence for local adaptation of the parasite toward host species, there was a slight temporal differentiation of the parasite populations, which might have resulted from severe bottlenecks during queen hibernation. Parasite populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and showed no signs of linkage disequilibrium suggesting that sexual reproduction is an alternative strategy in this otherwise clonal parasite. Moreover, high levels of multiple infections were found, which might facilitate sexual genetic exchange. The detection of identical clones in different host species suggested that horizontal transmission occurs between host species and underpins the lack of host-specific adaptation.© 2012 The Authors.

Stolle E.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Moritz R.F.A.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Moritz R.F.A.,University of Pretoria | Moritz R.F.A.,Universitatea Of Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

We present RESTseq, an improved approach for a cost efficient, highly flexible and repeatable enrichment of DNA fragments from digested genomic DNA using Next Generation Sequencing platforms including small scale Personal Genome sequencers. Easy adjustments make it suitable for a wide range of studies requiring SNP detection or SNP genotyping from fine-scale linkage mapping to population genomics and population genetics also in non-model organisms. We demonstrate the validity of our approach by comparing two honeybee and several stingless bee samples. © 2013 Stolle, Moritz.

Buttstedt A.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Moritz R.F.A.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Moritz R.F.A.,University of Pretoria | Moritz R.F.A.,Universitatea Of Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara | Erler S.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Frontiers in Zoology | Year: 2013

Background: In the honeybee Apis mellifera, female larvae destined to become a queen are fed with royal jelly, a secretion of the hypopharyngeal glands of young nurse bees that rear the brood. The protein moiety of royal jelly comprises mostly major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) of which the coding genes (mrjp1-9) have been identified on chromosome 11 in the honeybee's genome.Results: We determined the expression of mrjp1-9 among the honeybee worker caste (nurses, foragers) and the sexuals (queens (unmated, mated) and drones) in various body parts (head, thorax, abdomen). Specific mrjp expression was not only found in brood rearing nurse bees, but also in foragers and the sexuals.Conclusions: The expression of mrjp1 to 7 is characteristic for the heads of worker bees, with an elevated expression of mrjp1-4 and 7 in nurse bees compared to foragers. Mrjp5 and 6 were higher in foragers compared to nurses suggesting functions in addition to those of brood food proteins. Furthermore, the expression of mrjp9 was high in the heads, thoraces and abdomen of almost all female bees, suggesting a function irrespective of body section. This completely different expression profile suggests mrjp9 to code for the most ancestral major royal jelly protein of the honeybee. © 2013 Buttstedt et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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