Universitatea Of Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara

Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Universitatea Of Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara

Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Chakraborty S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Man T.,Babes - Bolyai University | Paulette L.,Universitatea Of Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara | Deb S.,North Bengal Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Geoderma | Year: 2017

Industrial pollution is a worldwide problem, especially near mining/smelter sites where toxic metals tend to accumulate in soils, sediments, and water. These elements pose a risk both for humans and other organisms' health. In Eastern Europe, assessment of toxic elements such as Pb, Cu, Zn, and others remain challenging because traditional methods are costly and time consuming due to sample collection, chemical digestion, and quantification in laboratories. To reduce these limitations, new assessment methods are needed for deployment in impacted areas. The study conducted herein is the first of its kind to combine portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry with non-parametric indicator kriging for rapid soil pollution hotspot mapping in Eastern Europe. PXRF was used to assess As, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb, Zn, and V at 131 georeferenced points (121 impacted; 10 control) in and around the city of Baia Mare, Romania. For spatial variability analysis, ordinary kriging interpolation was used to predict elemental levels in unsampled locations. Pb exceeded the action limit in 91.09% of the area, followed by As (81.20%), Cu (41.52%), Zn (26.69%), and Cr (5.58%). Indicator kriging was then used to estimate the probabilities of data exceeding certain threshold levels. As a result, the pollution hotspots were quickly identified. The highest estimated probabilities of surpassing the Romanian action limits were found around the smelting plant and dispersal stack. Results indicated a likelihood of exceeding action limits of 75% for Cu and between 50 and 75% for Zn. A major portion of the study area showed high probabilities for As and Pb surpassing the Romanian action limits by 75%. Summarily, the PXRF/indicator kriging approach proved effective at rapidly assessing the potential of metal-laden soils to exceed government mandated limits. Using this approach, other cities impacted by similar operations can quickly and cost effectively map areas of concern. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Vezeteu T.V.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Bobis O.,Universitatea Of Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara | Moritz R.F.A.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Buttstedt A.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
MicrobiologyOpen | Year: 2017

Honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera) serve as attractive hosts for a variety of pathogens providing optimal temperatures, humidity, and an abundance of food. Thus, honeybees have to deal with pathogens throughout their lives and, even as larvae they are affected by severe brood diseases like the European Foulbrood caused by Melissococcus plutonius. Accordingly, it is highly adaptive that larval food jelly contains antibiotic compounds. However, although food jelly is primarily consumed by bee larvae, studies investigating the antibiotic effects of this jelly have largely concentrated on bacterial human diseases. In this study, we show that royal jelly fed to queen larvae and added to the jelly of drone and worker larvae, inhibits not only the growth of European Foulbrood-associated bacteria but also its causative agent M. plutonius. This effect is shown to be caused by the main protein (major royal jelly protein 1) of royal jelly. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Buttstedt A.,Universitatea Of Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara | Buttstedt A.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Moritz R.F.A.,Universitatea Of Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara | Moritz R.F.A.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | And 3 more authors.
Biological Reviews | Year: 2014

In the honeybee, Apis mellifera, the queen larvae are fed with a diet exclusively composed of royal jelly (RJ), a secretion of the hypopharyngeal gland of young worker bees that nurse the brood. Up to 15% of RJ is composed of proteins, the nine most abundant of which have been termed major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs). Although it is widely accepted that RJ somehow determines the fate of a female larva and in spite of considerable research efforts, there are surprisingly few studies that address the biochemical characterisation and functions of these MRJPs. Here we review the research on MRJPs not only in honeybees but in hymenopteran insects in general and provide metadata analyses on genome organisation of mrjp genes, corroborating previous reports that MRJPs have important functions for insect development and not just a nutritional value for developing honeybee larvae. © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.


Erler S.,Universitatea Of Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara | Erler S.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Denner A.,Universitatea Of Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara | Denner A.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | And 5 more authors.
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2014

Honeybee colonies offer an excellent environment for microbial pathogen development. The highest virulent, colony killing, bacterial agents are Paenibacillus larvae causing American foulbrood (AFB), and European foulbrood (EFB) associated bacteria. Besides the innate immune defense, honeybees evolved behavioral defenses to combat infections. Foraging of antimicrobial plant compounds plays a key role for this "social immunity" behavior. Secondary plant metabolites in floral nectar are known for their antimicrobial effects. Yet, these compounds are highly plant specific, and the effects on bee health will depend on the floral origin of the honey produced. As worker bees not only feed themselves, but also the larvae and other colony members, honey is a prime candidate acting as self-medication agent in honeybee colonies to prevent or decrease infections. Here, we test eight AFB and EFB bacterial strains and the growth inhibitory activity of three honey types. Using a high-throughput cell growth assay, we show that all honeys have high growth inhibitory activity and the two monofloral honeys appeared to be strain specific. The specificity of the monofloral honeys and the strong antimicrobial potential of the polyfloral honey suggest that the diversity of honeys in the honey stores of a colony may be highly adaptive for its "social immunity" against the highly diverse suite of pathogens encountered in nature. This ecological diversity may therefore operate similar to the well-known effects of host genetic variance in the arms race between host and parasite. © 2014 The Authors.


Buttstedt A.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Moritz R.F.A.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Moritz R.F.A.,University of Pretoria | Moritz R.F.A.,Universitatea Of Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara | Erler S.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Frontiers in Zoology | Year: 2013

Background: In the honeybee Apis mellifera, female larvae destined to become a queen are fed with royal jelly, a secretion of the hypopharyngeal glands of young nurse bees that rear the brood. The protein moiety of royal jelly comprises mostly major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) of which the coding genes (mrjp1-9) have been identified on chromosome 11 in the honeybee's genome.Results: We determined the expression of mrjp1-9 among the honeybee worker caste (nurses, foragers) and the sexuals (queens (unmated, mated) and drones) in various body parts (head, thorax, abdomen). Specific mrjp expression was not only found in brood rearing nurse bees, but also in foragers and the sexuals.Conclusions: The expression of mrjp1 to 7 is characteristic for the heads of worker bees, with an elevated expression of mrjp1-4 and 7 in nurse bees compared to foragers. Mrjp5 and 6 were higher in foragers compared to nurses suggesting functions in addition to those of brood food proteins. Furthermore, the expression of mrjp9 was high in the heads, thoraces and abdomen of almost all female bees, suggesting a function irrespective of body section. This completely different expression profile suggests mrjp9 to code for the most ancestral major royal jelly protein of the honeybee. © 2013 Buttstedt et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Stolle E.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Moritz R.F.A.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Moritz R.F.A.,University of Pretoria | Moritz R.F.A.,Universitatea Of Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

We present RESTseq, an improved approach for a cost efficient, highly flexible and repeatable enrichment of DNA fragments from digested genomic DNA using Next Generation Sequencing platforms including small scale Personal Genome sequencers. Easy adjustments make it suitable for a wide range of studies requiring SNP detection or SNP genotyping from fine-scale linkage mapping to population genomics and population genetics also in non-model organisms. We demonstrate the validity of our approach by comparing two honeybee and several stingless bee samples. © 2013 Stolle, Moritz.


Buttstedt A.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Buttstedt A.,Universitatea Of Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara | Wostradowski T.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Ihling C.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | And 3 more authors.
Amyloid | Year: 2013

In vitro amyloid formation has been suggested to be a common property of any polypeptide chain depending on particular environmental conditions although in vivo amyloid fibril formation can be promoted by point mutations or triplet expansions. Here, we explored the influence of agitation on fibril formation of amyloidogenic alanine segments fused to Cold Shock Protein B (CspB) of Bacillus subtilis. While without agitation fibril formation was clearly dependent on the presence of an amyloidogenic alanine segment, fibril formation was independent of the amyloidogenic segment under agitation. Agitation even led to fibrillation of native CspB lacking the amyloidogenic segment. Furthermore, agitation not only influenced the kinetics of fibril formation, but also resulted in completely different fibril morphologies. These results indicate that experimental conditions can alter the region that undergoes a conformational change during in vitro fibrillation. Moreover, the data show that deductions from in vitro assays on in vivo fibril formation mechanisms are afflicted with a certain degree of uncertainty and therefore need to be cautiously discussed. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved.


Erler S.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Erler S.,Universitatea Of Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara | Popp M.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Wolf S.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | And 2 more authors.
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2012

Local adaptation within host-parasite systems can evolve by several non-exclusive drivers (e.g., host species-genetic adaptation; ecological conditions-ecological adaptation, and time-temporal adaptation). Social insects, especially bumblebees, with an annual colony life history not only provide an ideal system to test parasite transmission within and between different host colonies, but also parasite adaptation to specific host species and environments. Here, we study local adaptation in a multiple-host parasite characterized by high levels of horizontal transmission. Crithidia bombi occurs as a gut parasite in several bumblebee species. Parasites were sampled fromfive different host species in two subsequent years. Population genetic tools were used to test for the several types of adaptation. Although we found no evidence for local adaptation of the parasite toward host species, there was a slight temporal differentiation of the parasite populations, which might have resulted from severe bottlenecks during queen hibernation. Parasite populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and showed no signs of linkage disequilibrium suggesting that sexual reproduction is an alternative strategy in this otherwise clonal parasite. Moreover, high levels of multiple infections were found, which might facilitate sexual genetic exchange. The detection of identical clones in different host species suggested that horizontal transmission occurs between host species and underpins the lack of host-specific adaptation.© 2012 The Authors.


PubMed | Universitatea Of Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara
Type: | Journal: Virus research | Year: 2016

Viral diseases are one of the multiple factors associated with honeybee colony losses. Apart from their innate immune system, including the RNAi machinery, honeybees can use secondary plant metabolites to reduce or fully cure pathogen infections. Here, we tested the antiviral potential of Laurus nobilis leaf ethanolic extracts on forager honeybees naturally infected with BQCV (Black queen cell virus). Total viral loads were reduced even at the lowest concentration tested (1mg/ml). Higher extract concentrations (5mg/ml) significantly reduced virus replication. Measuring vitellogenin gene expression as an indicator for transcript homeostasis revealed constant RNA levels before and after treatment, suggesting that its expression was not impacted by the L. nobilis treatment. In conclusion, plant secondary metabolites can reduce virus loads and virus replication in naturally infected honeybees.


PubMed | Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg and Universitatea Of Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara
Type: | Journal: MicrobiologyOpen | Year: 2016

Honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera) serve as attractive hosts for a variety of pathogens providing optimal temperatures, humidity, and an abundance of food. Thus, honeybees have to deal with pathogens throughout their lives and, even as larvae they are affected by severe brood diseases like the European Foulbrood caused by Melissococcus plutonius. Accordingly, it is highly adaptive that larval food jelly contains antibiotic compounds. However, although food jelly is primarily consumed by bee larvae, studies investigating the antibiotic effects of this jelly have largely concentrated on bacterial human diseases. In this study, we show that royal jelly fed to queen larvae and added to the jelly of drone and worker larvae, inhibits not only the growth of European Foulbrood-associated bacteria but also its causative agent M.plutonius. This effect is shown to be caused by the main protein (major royal jelly protein 1) of royal jelly.

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