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Navarro-Gonzalez N.,Universitatautonoma Of Barcelona Uab | Ugarte-Ruiz M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Porrero M.C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Zamora L.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 6 more authors.
EcoHealth | Year: 2014

Campylobacter infections are a public health concern and an increasingly common cause of food-borne zoonoses in the European Union. However, little is known about their spill-over from free-ranging livestock to sympatric wild ungulates, especially in regards to uncommon Campylobacter species. In this study, we aim to determine the prevalence of C. coli, C. jejuni and other C. spp. in game ungulates (wild boar Sus scrofa and Iberian ibex Capra pyrenaica) and free-ranging sympatric cattle in a National Game Reserve in NE Spain. Furthermore, we explore the extent to which Campylobacter species are shared among these co-habiting hosts. Faecal samples from Iberian ibex (n = 181) were negative for C. spp. By direct plating, two wild boars out of 150 were positive for C. coli (1.3%, 95% CI 0.16-4.73), and one was positive for C. jejuni (0.67%, 95% CI 0.02-3.66). The latter was predominant in cattle: 5.45% (n = 55, 95% CI 1.14-5.12), while C. coli was not isolated from this host. C. lanienae was the most frequent species in wild boar at 10% (95% CI 5.7-15.96), and one cow cohabiting with positive wild boars in the same canyon also carried C. lanienae. Four enrichment protocols (using Bolton or Preston broth combined with either mCCDA or CFA) were added for 172 samples (57 from wild boars, 55 cattle and 60 Iberian ibexes) to increase the number of isolates obtained allowing the detection of statistically significant differences. The prevalence of C. lanienae was statistically significantly higher in wild boar than in cattle (P < 0.01), but the prevalence of C. jejuni was higher in the latter (P = 0.045). These results suggest that wild boar and cattle carry their own predominant Campylobacter species, while Iberian ibex do not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter. However, there is a potential spill-over of C. spp., and thus, further research is needed to elucidate the factors determining inter-species transmission. © 2014 International Association for Ecology and Health.

Palafox-Sanchez V.,Autonomous University of Puebla | Mendieta L.,Autonomous University of Puebla | Ramirez-Garcia G.,Autonomous University of Puebla | Candalija A.,Universitatautonoma Of Barcelona Uab | And 4 more authors.
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior | Year: 2016

Recombinant Hc-TeTx fragment has been successfully assayed as a neuroprotector in Parkinson's disease (PD) models. While levodopa has been the gold standard in the therapeutic treatment of PD, unfortunately almost all patients develop dyskinesia or abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of post-lesion treatment with Hc-TeTx or pre-lesion treatment with Hc-TeTx on levodopa-induced dyskinesia in rats. AIMs were induced with low, mid and high levodopa doses (6, 10 and 25 mg/kg respectively) and examined for 22 days. Finally, tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and FosB/δFosB expression in the striatum were examined. Hc-TeTx (20 μg/kg i.m.) co-administrated with levodopa (6 or 10 mg/kg) did not reduce the severity of the AIMs, while the group treated with Hc-TeTx plus levodopa (25 mg/kg) presented a temporary attenuation of dyskinetic limb and orolingual movements; however, the restorative effects of Hc-TeTx on motor behavior and dopaminergic neuronal death in the SNpc were not observed. There was a significant post-treatment increase in FosB/δFosB expression in the dorsolateral and ventral striatum of animals treated with Hc-TeTx. When Hc-TeTx was administrated prior to dopaminergic lesion and levodopa administration (10 mg/kg), there was a slight recovery of motor asymmetry, one week post-lesion. Moreover, while the Hc-TeTx slightly reduced the AIMs score in the first days of levodopa treatment, it was not effective by the end of the experiment. Also, the loss of TH neurons in the SNpc revealed that Hc-TeTx did not induce effective neuroprotection. It is worth noting that a reduction of FosB/δFosB expression in the dorsolateral striatum was observed. In summary, Hc-TeTx treatment did not effectively reduce the induction of AIMs by levodopa in hemiparkinsonian rats, although the pre-treatment administration of Hc-TeTx causes minor FosB expression in the dorsolateral striatum. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Vargas-Parra M.V.,Universitatautonoma Of Barcelona Uab | Rovira M.R.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Gabarrell X.,Universitatautonoma Of Barcelona Uab | Villalba G.,Universitatautonoma Of Barcelona Uab
Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology - AQUA | Year: 2014

Expected population growth will result in increasing water demand. The consequences could potentially jeopardise water resource availability especially in urban areas and significantly increase costs. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems can aid not only in meeting water demand partially, but also doing so in a more cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner than other techniques. Although the reduction of environmental burdens is fairly obvious, the question for urban planners and consumers remains: are RWH systems economically feasible? This paper investigates cost effectiveness of eight different scenarios in the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. To do so, monetary investment is quantified to provide rainwater for laundry purposes. Results indicate that high density scenarios are financially the most suitable choices (higher net present value and shorter payback time) given that: more users mean more savings from laundry additive consumption. Further studies should consider which are the variables that have a greater effect on the financial appraisal. Similar to inflation rate, specific attention should be paid to the costs associated with the storage tank location. Included on the savings side should be the no tap water consumption effect on the water bill, along with special attention to tap water prices in the area of study. © IWA Publishing 2014

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