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Bloemfontein, South Africa

Navarro C.,Virbac | Reymond N.,Nadege Savelli EIRL | Fourie J.,Universitas | Hellmann K.,KLIFOVET AG | Bonneau S.,Virbac
Parasites and Vectors

Background: Two experimental studies using a transmission blocking model with Dermacentor reticulatus ticks infected with Babesia canis were performed to test the ability of Effitix® to prevent the transmission of babesiosis in dogs. Methods: Four groups of seven dogs (experiment 1) and one group of eight dogs (experiment 2) were treated topically with a novel combination of fipronil and permethrin in a spot-on formulation (Effitix®, Virbac) respectively 28, 21, 14 and 7 days (experiment 1) and 2 days (experiment 2) prior to tick infestation. In each study, a control group of seven dogs (experiment 1) and eight dogs (experiment 2) remained untreated. On day 0, all dogs were infested with adult D.reticulatus ticks harboring B. canis. An efficacy failure (successfully infected) was regarded as a dog in the treated groups that was tested serologically positive for B.canis antibodies, using an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assay and tested positive for B.canis by DNA-assay using PCR analysis. Results: B.canis was transmitted by D.reticulatus to all untreated dogs (experiment 1) and six untreated dogs out of eight (experiment 2) as confirmed by IFA and PCR assays. The large majority of treated dogs (92.9% in experiment 1 and 100% in experiment 2) remained sero-negative over the challenge period. Conclusions: The treatment of dogs with Effitix® applied 2 to 28 days prior to infestation with D. reticulatus harboring B.canis, successfully prevented the transmission of canine babesiosis. © 2015 Navarro et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source

Dumont P.,Merial SAS | Liebenberg J.,Universitas | Beugnet F.,Merial SAS | Fankhauser B.,Merial Limited
Parasites and Vectors

Background: A blinded, controlled laboratory study was conducted to assess the repellency and acaricidal activity of a topical spot on formulation, a combination of fipronil and permethrin, against Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on dogs. Methods: A group of 16 adult mixed breed dogs were randomly divided into treatment and control groups based on pre-treatment live tick counts. On Day 0, the topical spot on formulation of fipronil + permethrin (commercialized under the name Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect®) was administered to dogs in the treatment group at the minimum recommended dose of 0.1 mL/kg, corresponding to 6.76 mg fipronil/kg and 50.48 mg/kg permethrin. Tick infestations were performed with I. ricinus (50 females, 50 males) and R. sanguineus (25 females, 25 males) on each dog on Days 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Dogs were sedated prior to exposure and confined to crates for approximately 4 h following tick challenge. Ticks were released next to the sedated dogs and tick counts were performed at 4 h and 24 h after the start of exposure for tick counts and removal. Results: Repellency at 4 h against I. ricinus was 72.6, 96.3, 92.8, 89.0, and 88.7 % on Days 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28, respectively. Repellency was 100 % 24 h after exposures on Days 2, 7, and 14 and 99.6 % after exposures on Days 21 and 28. For R. sanguineus, repellency at 4 h was 78.0, 96.8, 91.5, 88.0, and 56.8 % on Days 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28, respectively. Repellency at 24 h was 98.6, 100, 98.7, 96.1, and 95.1 % for exposures on Days 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28, respectively. Conclusions: A combination of fipronil and permethrin was highly effective at rapidly repelling and killing both I. ricinus and R. sanguineus ticks on dogs for at least 4 weeks, with a significant effect at 4 and 24 h after tick exposure. © 2015 Dumont et al. Source

Background: Two studies evaluating the efficacy of an imidacloprid/ flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer Animal Health, IVP), a deltamethrin collar (Scalibor®, MSD, CP1), a fipronil/(s)-methoprene spot-on (Frontline Combo®, Merial, CP2), a dinotefuran/pyriproxyfen/permethrin spot-on (Vectra 3D®, Ceva, CP3) and an amitraz/fipronil/(s)-methoprene spot-on (Certifect®, Merial, CP4/CP5) against repeated infestations with Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis felis on dogs were conducted over periods of 226 days and 71 days respectively. Methods: The first study comprised 4 groups of treated dogs and one untreated control group, and the second 3 groups of treated dogs and one control group. Each group consisted of 8 dogs. All dogs were infested with ticks and fleas at regular intervals. Ticks were counted 6 h, 18 h or 48 h after infestations and fleas 24 h after infestations. Efficacies of the treatments were calculated by comparison with the untreated control groups using standard descriptive statistics. Results: The protective 48 h tick efficacy was 97.8% to 100% for the IVP (226 days), 69.3% to 97.4% for CP1 (170 days), 99.6% to 43.4% for CP2 (35 days) and 98% to 61.4% for CP3 (35 days). The protective 18 h tick efficacy was 98% to 99.6% for the IVP (71 days), 100% to 86.5% for CP4 (29 days), 100% to 72.8% for CP4 after re-treatment (35 days) and 98.8% to 54.3% for CP5 (35 days). The protective 6 h tick efficacy was 85.6% at Day 7 and 90.1% to 97.1% from Day 14 onwards for the IVP (70 days), 92.3% to 70.7% for CP4 (35 days), 97.5% to 65.2% for CP4 after re-treatment (35 days) and 95.1% to 51.8% for CP5 (35 days). The protective 24 h flea efficacy was 99.5/90.9% to 100% for the IVP (71/226 days), 66.7% to 83% for CP1 (170 days), 100% to 88.5% for CP2 (35 days), 100% to 73.3% for CP3 (35 days), 100% to 98.7% for CP4 (35 days), 100% to 87.5% for CP4 after re-treatment (35 days) and 100% to 79.5% for CP5 (35 days). © 2012 Horak et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Bienhoff S.E.,Novartis Animal Health U.S. Inc | Kok D.J.,Universitas | Roycroft L.M.,Novartis Animal Health U.S. Inc | Roberts E.S.,Novartis Animal Health U.S. Inc
Veterinary Parasitology

The objective of this randomized, blinded, placebo controlled laboratory study was to confirm the efficacy of a single oral administration of two marketed formulations of milbemycin oxime (Interceptor® Flavor Tabs® and Sentinel® Flavor Tabs®) at a minimum dose of 0.5mg/kg (0.23mg/lb) against natural infections of Ancylostoma braziliense in dogs. Thirty-six hookworm infected dogs, a minimum of 10 weeks of age and of various breeds and genders were used. Fecal egg counts were done on three separate days prior to treatment for randomization purposes. Dogs were ranked by descending order of the fecal egg count arithmetic means and randomly assigned to either the two milbemycin treatment groups or the placebo control group in blocks of three dogs each, 12 dogs per group. Dogs were dosed according to the product label with blinding maintained by separation of function. Worm counts were done at necropsy 7 days after treatment. Reduction in A. braziliense worm counts in the milbemycin groups were compared to the placebo control group using analysis of variance of the A. braziliense logarithmic mean worm counts and percent efficacy was based on geometric means. Efficacy was defined as the ability of the test products to significantly (p≤0.05) reduce parasite load by 90% or greater in treated dogs when compared to adequately infected placebo control dogs. The placebo control group had a geometric mean worm count of 19.2. The Interceptor treated group had a geometric mean worm count of 0.38 representing a 98% reduction in parasite load and the Sentinel treated group had a geometric mean worm count of 0.98 representing a 95% reduction in parasite load. Both reductions were highly significant (p<0.0001). In this study, milbemycin oxime, when administered as two marketed formulations at a minimum dose of 0.5mg/kg (0.23mg/lb), was efficacious for removing adult A. braziliense in naturally infected dogs. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 2.54M | Year: 2010

The objective of ADAPTATION is to improve the career perspectives of young researchers by taking part in an innovative European research programme aiming at investigating drivers behavioural adaptation and its underlying processes over the time in response to Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) use. The research programme integrates, under a joint theoritical framework and a joint longitudinal methodological design, a set of individual projects dealing with the various aspects of the adaptation process. In addition to training-through research, personalized training actions will extend the skills of this future generation of academia and industry researchers. The training programme implemented during the ITN lifetime aims to accelerate acquisition of skills in Human Factors applied to ADAS design, to favour multi-disciplinary approaches, to strengthen to disseminate research results and to widen the career prospect with complementary skill on team and project management. Through its research and training programmes, ADAPTATION will contribute both to the development of the ERA and to an increase of EU competitiveness. The competitiveness of the European Industry and the implementation of their products will be improved by better response of ADAS to the drivers needs and requirements. The European community will also benefit from the education of high skilled professionals and the development of durable training programmes for a future generation of researchers.

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