Bloemfontein, South Africa
Bloemfontein, South Africa

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Freitas A.C.,Universitas | Freitas A.C.,Instituto Universitario Of Lisbon | Silva S.A.,Instituto Universitario Of Lisbon
Safety Science | Year: 2017

Safety training (ST) is essential for workplace safety and to be effective requires that the learned knowledge and skills are transferred to the job. Research on transfer mechanisms and its predictors has neglected trainers’ influence, despite their privileged position on decisions related with training. This study is aimed at identifying: (1) trainers’ perspectives on best practices for enhancing ST success; (2) unexplored transfer factors based on reported best practices; and (3) the trainers’ sense of self-efficacy and personal responsibility regarding ST results. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with experienced and first-line safety trainers, all OHS professionals. Content analysis revealed that trainers attribute training success to factors related to trainees’ individual characteristics, workplace environment and mainly to training design and delivery. OHS professionals’ presence in the workplace emerged as a critical transference trigger suggesting future research to explore under what conditions that effect occurs. Participants reported feeling responsible for training results but revealed a low sense of control. These results confirm that trainers decide on training design and deliver but their role should be expanded so to support training application in the work context. For that purpose, companies must empower safety trainers for enhancing their control over the transfer process. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Navarro C.,Virbac | Reymond N.,Nadege Savelli EIRL | Fourie J.,Universitas | Hellmann K.,KLIFOVET AG | Bonneau S.,Virbac
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2015

Background: Two experimental studies using a transmission blocking model with Dermacentor reticulatus ticks infected with Babesia canis were performed to test the ability of Effitix® to prevent the transmission of babesiosis in dogs. Methods: Four groups of seven dogs (experiment 1) and one group of eight dogs (experiment 2) were treated topically with a novel combination of fipronil and permethrin in a spot-on formulation (Effitix®, Virbac) respectively 28, 21, 14 and 7 days (experiment 1) and 2 days (experiment 2) prior to tick infestation. In each study, a control group of seven dogs (experiment 1) and eight dogs (experiment 2) remained untreated. On day 0, all dogs were infested with adult D.reticulatus ticks harboring B. canis. An efficacy failure (successfully infected) was regarded as a dog in the treated groups that was tested serologically positive for B.canis antibodies, using an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assay and tested positive for B.canis by DNA-assay using PCR analysis. Results: B.canis was transmitted by D.reticulatus to all untreated dogs (experiment 1) and six untreated dogs out of eight (experiment 2) as confirmed by IFA and PCR assays. The large majority of treated dogs (92.9% in experiment 1 and 100% in experiment 2) remained sero-negative over the challenge period. Conclusions: The treatment of dogs with Effitix® applied 2 to 28 days prior to infestation with D. reticulatus harboring B.canis, successfully prevented the transmission of canine babesiosis. © 2015 Navarro et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SST-2007-4.1-02 | Award Amount: 3.33M | Year: 2008

The main objective of INTERACTION project is to identify the patterns of use of in-vehicle technologies by European drivers in everyday life and their long term effects on drivers behaviour and skills in normal and emergency situations. Thus, the project will highlight cultural and individual differences amongst European drivers that influence the nature of drivers interactions in-vehicle technology, and the consequent outcomes of these interactions. To achieve these objectives, a comprehensive research framework to investigate in-vehicle technology use has been developed. This framework is based on an innovative combination of well established research methodologies and technics : focus groups, questionnaire survey, naturalistic observations, and in-depth observations. The purpose of this combined approach is to gather self-reported and observed driver behaviour data and qualitative and quantitative analysis. The target impacts will be the reduction of the risks of systems misuses and of possible human error by drivers. Thus, it will increase the global benefits of in vehicle technology in enhancing road safety. To reach this target, two main operational outcomes will be issued from the knowledge acquired during the project. On the one hand, the knowledge will allow to define actions to strengthen drivers awareness for the use of these technologies and for the consequences that such use has or may have. On the other hand, the knowledge will permit to edit recommendations for the design of future systems and of appropriate instructions for drivers that will use them to favour a safe use of in-vehicle technologies by European drivers.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 2.54M | Year: 2010

The objective of ADAPTATION is to improve the career perspectives of young researchers by taking part in an innovative European research programme aiming at investigating drivers behavioural adaptation and its underlying processes over the time in response to Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) use. The research programme integrates, under a joint theoritical framework and a joint longitudinal methodological design, a set of individual projects dealing with the various aspects of the adaptation process. In addition to training-through research, personalized training actions will extend the skills of this future generation of academia and industry researchers. The training programme implemented during the ITN lifetime aims to accelerate acquisition of skills in Human Factors applied to ADAS design, to favour multi-disciplinary approaches, to strengthen to disseminate research results and to widen the career prospect with complementary skill on team and project management. Through its research and training programmes, ADAPTATION will contribute both to the development of the ERA and to an increase of EU competitiveness. The competitiveness of the European Industry and the implementation of their products will be improved by better response of ADAS to the drivers needs and requirements. The European community will also benefit from the education of high skilled professionals and the development of durable training programmes for a future generation of researchers.

Dumont P.,Merial S.A.S. | Fourie J.J.,Universitas | Soll M.,Merial S.A.S. | Beugnet F.,Merial S.A.S.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2015

Background: Dermacentor reticulatus is a European hard tick of major veterinary importance because it is the vector of canine babesiosis due to Babesia canis. The efficacy against this particular tick species is therefore a key characteristic for an acaricidal solution for dogs. The repellency, prevention of attachment and acaricidal efficacy of Frontline Tri- Act®/Frontect®, a new combination of fipronil and permethrin against induced infestations of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks on dogs were evaluated after a single topical administration. Methods: A group of 20 dogs were allocated to two treatment groups. Ten dogs were treated with a topical spot-on formulation containing 6.76% w/v fipronil + 50.48% w/v permethrin once on Day 0 and 10 dogs served as untreated controls. Tick infestations were performed by placing 50 D. reticulatus ticks next to sedated dogs confined to infestation crates on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Thumb counts on dogs were conducted at 4, 12 and 24 h post-challenge. Tick removal counts were performed 48 h after each infestation. Repellency, prevention of attachment and acaricidal efficacy were calculated. Results: The new combination provided repellency ranging between (56.5-73.5%) at 4 h post-infestation (pi), between (76.3-92.9%) at 12 h pi and between (83.9-96.5%) at 24 h pi, up to 4 weeks post-treatment. Prevention of attachment ranged between (64.1-79.7%) at 4 h pi, between (79.1-94.2%) at 12 h pi and between (84.2-99.6%) at 24 h pi, up to 4 weeks post-treatment. Acaricidal efficacy against D. reticulatus ticks was ≥99.5% for 4 weeks post-treatment. Conclusion: The new combination of fipronil and permethrin demonstrated excellent repellency, prevention of attachment and acaricidal efficacy against D. reticulatus for at least 4 weeks. The results suggest that in endemic areas of canine babesiosis, the application of the new combination can significantly reduce the potential for transmission of B. canis as well as other tick-borne diseases. © 2015 Dumont et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

Beugnet F.,Merial S.A.S. | Halos L.,Merial S.A.S. | Larsen D.,Merial S.A.S. | Labuschagne M.,Universitas | And 2 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

Background: Canine babesiosis due to Babesia canis is an endemic disease in many European countries. A vaccine is available in some countries, but it does not prevent the infection and just helps in reducing the gravity of clinical signs. Therefore, the major way to help preventing the disease is by controlling tick infestations on dogs.To assess the preventive efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®), a new oral anti- flea and tick product, against Babesia canis infected adult Dermacentor reticulatus in an experimentally controlled study. Methods. Sixteen healthy mixed breed adult dogs, negative for Babesia canis antibodies were included in a single centre, randomized, blinded and controlled study to evaluate the impact of treatment with afoxolaner on the transmission of Babesia canis to dogs exposed to Dermacentor reticulatus. The dogs were randomly allocated into two groups of 8 dogs each. One group remained untreated. In the other group, dogs were treated orally with a novel formulation of afoxolaner (NexGard®) on day 0. All dogs were infested each by 50 adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (equal sex ratio) at days 7, 14, 21 and 28. The Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were confirmed to harbour Babesia canis by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Results: The treatment was well tolerated by all dogs without any adverse effects. Babesia canis was transmitted by D. reticulatus to all untreated control dogs, confirmed following demonstration of hyperthermia, detection of B. canis parasites in blood smears and PCR assay from blood and serology. These confirmed infected dogs were subsequently treated with imidocarb and diminazene. The treated dogs remained negative based on all criteria until the last study, Day 56, confirming that the oral treatment of dogs with NexGard® prevented transmission of Babesia canis and development of clinical babesiosis for up to 28 days. Conclusion: This is the first demonstration that an oral acaricidal treatment may prevent the transmission of a pathogen despite the need for the tick to attach and start feeding before being killed by the acaricide. © 2014 Beugnet et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Bienhoff S.E.,Novartis Animal Health U.S. Inc. | Kok D.J.,Universitas | Roycroft L.M.,Novartis Animal Health U.S. Inc. | Roberts E.S.,Novartis Animal Health U.S. Inc.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2013

The objective of this randomized, blinded, placebo controlled laboratory study was to confirm the efficacy of a single oral administration of two marketed formulations of milbemycin oxime (Interceptor® Flavor Tabs® and Sentinel® Flavor Tabs®) at a minimum dose of 0.5mg/kg (0.23mg/lb) against natural infections of Ancylostoma braziliense in dogs. Thirty-six hookworm infected dogs, a minimum of 10 weeks of age and of various breeds and genders were used. Fecal egg counts were done on three separate days prior to treatment for randomization purposes. Dogs were ranked by descending order of the fecal egg count arithmetic means and randomly assigned to either the two milbemycin treatment groups or the placebo control group in blocks of three dogs each, 12 dogs per group. Dogs were dosed according to the product label with blinding maintained by separation of function. Worm counts were done at necropsy 7 days after treatment. Reduction in A. braziliense worm counts in the milbemycin groups were compared to the placebo control group using analysis of variance of the A. braziliense logarithmic mean worm counts and percent efficacy was based on geometric means. Efficacy was defined as the ability of the test products to significantly (p≤0.05) reduce parasite load by 90% or greater in treated dogs when compared to adequately infected placebo control dogs. The placebo control group had a geometric mean worm count of 19.2. The Interceptor treated group had a geometric mean worm count of 0.38 representing a 98% reduction in parasite load and the Sentinel treated group had a geometric mean worm count of 0.98 representing a 95% reduction in parasite load. Both reductions were highly significant (p<0.0001). In this study, milbemycin oxime, when administered as two marketed formulations at a minimum dose of 0.5mg/kg (0.23mg/lb), was efficacious for removing adult A. braziliense in naturally infected dogs. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: SST-2007-3.1-01 | Award Amount: 797.42K | Year: 2008

The main aim of proposing the ACCESS 2 ALL coordination action is to encourage Public Transport operators belonging to the project target group to adopt innovative technological concepts and mobility schemes that enable high quality mobility and transportation services for all, as well as to provide their personnel with the necessary knowledge on the particularities of specific user groups, such as the elderly and disabled, ICT-illiterate, dyslexic and illiterate people, etc. ACCESS 2 ALL aims at defining concrete mobility schemes, guidelines and policy recommendations, ensuring accessibility of Public Transport to ALL users, through the coordination of current research efforts, the production of common research roadmaps, the identification of best practice models and the appropriate use of ICT aids and networks. The achievement of all above stated objectives will be measured and verified through well specified milestones and specific success assessment criteria.

This study investigated the efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10 %/moxidectin 2.5 % spot-on combination (Advocate®, Advantage® Multi, Bayer) against immature and mature stages of Spirocerca lupi in experimentally infected dogs. 24 dogs were allocated to 3 groups and infected with approximately 10 L3 larvae of S. lupi orally on study day (SD) +2, +14, +28 and +42. Group 1 remained as untreated control group. Group 2 dogs were treated on SD -28, 0, and thereafter monthly until Day 280 (12 treatments). Group 3 dogs were treated weekly on 19 occasions starting on SD +170. The dosage for all treatments was the licensed dose of 10-25 mg imidacloprid/2.5-6.25 mg moxidectin per kg body weight. All dogs were examined on SD +169 or +176 by endoscopy. Group 3 dogs were additionally examined approximately every two weeks up to Day 296. On Day +308 or +310, all dogs were necropsied to recover S. lupi worms and to quantify lesions in the thoracic aorta and oesophagus. Dogs in the control group were adequately infected with S. lupi, demonstrated by the extensive damage to the thoracic aorta, the nodules in the oesophagus and the large numbers of worms recovered. In total 144 worms were collected (geometric mean of 16.8 worms per dog). Dogs in group 2 had no or very slight damage to the thoracic aorta and no nodules or worms in the oesophagus, indicating 100 % efficacy of the monthly treatments. Dogs in group 3 were also adequately infected, showing nodules in the oesophagus before initiation of weekly treatment, and at necropsy extensive damage was seen in the thoracic aorta. After treatment, three dogs of 8 still had a few nodules and in total three worms (GM of 0.25 per dog) were recovered, demonstrating an efficacy of 98.5 % against adult S. lupi. All dogs tolerated the treatment well and no treatment- related adverse events occurred.

Background: Two studies evaluating the efficacy of an imidacloprid/ flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer Animal Health, IVP), a deltamethrin collar (Scalibor®, MSD, CP1), a fipronil/(s)-methoprene spot-on (Frontline Combo®, Merial, CP2), a dinotefuran/pyriproxyfen/permethrin spot-on (Vectra 3D®, Ceva, CP3) and an amitraz/fipronil/(s)-methoprene spot-on (Certifect®, Merial, CP4/CP5) against repeated infestations with Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis felis on dogs were conducted over periods of 226 days and 71 days respectively. Methods: The first study comprised 4 groups of treated dogs and one untreated control group, and the second 3 groups of treated dogs and one control group. Each group consisted of 8 dogs. All dogs were infested with ticks and fleas at regular intervals. Ticks were counted 6 h, 18 h or 48 h after infestations and fleas 24 h after infestations. Efficacies of the treatments were calculated by comparison with the untreated control groups using standard descriptive statistics. Results: The protective 48 h tick efficacy was 97.8% to 100% for the IVP (226 days), 69.3% to 97.4% for CP1 (170 days), 99.6% to 43.4% for CP2 (35 days) and 98% to 61.4% for CP3 (35 days). The protective 18 h tick efficacy was 98% to 99.6% for the IVP (71 days), 100% to 86.5% for CP4 (29 days), 100% to 72.8% for CP4 after re-treatment (35 days) and 98.8% to 54.3% for CP5 (35 days). The protective 6 h tick efficacy was 85.6% at Day 7 and 90.1% to 97.1% from Day 14 onwards for the IVP (70 days), 92.3% to 70.7% for CP4 (35 days), 97.5% to 65.2% for CP4 after re-treatment (35 days) and 95.1% to 51.8% for CP5 (35 days). The protective 24 h flea efficacy was 99.5/90.9% to 100% for the IVP (71/226 days), 66.7% to 83% for CP1 (170 days), 100% to 88.5% for CP2 (35 days), 100% to 73.3% for CP3 (35 days), 100% to 98.7% for CP4 (35 days), 100% to 87.5% for CP4 after re-treatment (35 days) and 100% to 79.5% for CP5 (35 days). © 2012 Horak et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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