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Santiago de Compostela, Spain

Saint-Faust M.,Universitary Hospital | Boubred F.,Aix - Marseille University | Simeoni U.,Aix - Marseille University
American Journal of Perinatology | Year: 2014

The structural and functional development of the kidney is responsible for a significant impact on postnatal adaptation to extrauterine life. Prenatal or neonatal impairment of nephrogenesis may carry long term, lifelong consequences in terms of reduced nephron endowment, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular risks at adulthood. Intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth, congenital renal, and urinary tract anomalies are for long widely incriminated. Neonatal administration of nephrotoxic drugs has been associated with short-term acute kidney injury and longer chronic kidney disease. This review attempts at offering a comprehensive understanding of the renal development, the neonatal renal transition to extrauterine life and subsequent maturation phase during early infancy. It also focuses on developmental and maturational changes that impact lifelong renal function and adult health. © 2014 by Thieme Medical.

Arnaud L.,systemIC | Arnaud L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Arnaud L.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Mathian A.,systemIC | And 16 more authors.
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2014

We performed a meta-analysis to determine whether aspirin has a significant protective effect on risk of first thrombosis among patients with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL+). Observational and interventional studies identified from the Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases were selected if they assessed the incidence of first thrombosis in aPL+ patients treated with aspirin versus those without. Pooled effect estimates were obtained using a random-effects model. Of 1211 citation retrieved, 11 primary studies (10 observational and 1 interventional) met inclusion criteria, including a total of 1208 patients and 139 thrombotic events. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for the risk of first thrombosis in patients treated with aspirin (n=601) was 0.50 (95%CI: 0.27 to 0.93) compared to those without aspirin (n=607), with significant heterogeneity across studies (I2=46%, p=0.05). Subgroup analysis showed a protective effect of aspirin against arterial (OR: 0.48 [95%CI: 0.28-0.82]) but not venous (OR: 0.58 [95% CI: 0.32-1.06]) thrombosis, as well as in retrospective (OR: 0.23 [0.13-0.42]) but not prospective studies (OR: 0.91 [0.52-1.59]). Subgroup analysis according to underlying disease revealed a significant protective effect of aspirin for asymptomatic aPL+ individuals (OR: 0.50 [0.25-0.99]), for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (OR: 0.55 [0.31-0.98]) and obstetrical antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) (OR: 0.25 [0.10-0.62]). This meta-analysis shows that the risk of first thrombotic event is significantly decreased by low dose aspirin among asymptomatic aPL individuals, patients with SLE or obstetrical APS. Importantly, no significant risk reduction was observed when considering only prospective studies or those with the best methodological quality. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Diaconescu M.R.,Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy | Diaconescu M.R.,Universitary Hospital | Diaconescu S.,Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy
Chirurgia (Romania) | Year: 2012

Morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural but also clinical and prognostic differences between multiple types of mesenchimal (stromal, nonepithelial) tumors of the gastrointestinal tract prompted us the remembrance of an anecdotic series of sixteen observations of mesenchymal "nonstromal" gastrointestinal tumors (MNSGIT) encountered in four decades of surgical practice. The diagnosis was mainly established on clinical grounds (dyspepsia, pains, digestive hemorrhage or obstruction, palpable tumor) - some lesions being incidentally discovered - and confirmed by radiology, endoscopy, intraoperative exploration and microscopic pathology examination which revealed 9 schwannomas, three leiomyomas, two lipomas, fibroma and "mixoma" one case each. Our cases were located on the stomach (n=12), small bowell (n=1) and right colon (n=3). All the cases were operated on being practiced tumor exeresis with mucous or parietal ruff excision, atypical, conservative and standard (segmentar or sectorial) visceral resection. There was no postoperative morbidity or mortality in our series. Median follow-up for our cases was 24 (range 6 - 60) months and there are not evidence of recurrences or metastatic disease. Even if the actual concerns are prioritary oriented towards the study of GIST, the current nosology of the tiny subgroup of mesenchymal (non-epithelial) "non-GIST" lesions of the digestive tract must be reloaded helping the practioner which can be confronted with this pathology to a better evaluation and optimal therapy. Copyright © Celsius.

Sanchez-Ares M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Garcia-Vidal M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Antucho E.-E.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Julio P.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 3 more authors.
Kidney International | Year: 2013

Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a histological pattern that has several etiologies, including genetics. The autosomal dominant form of FSGS is a heterogenic disease caused by mutations within three known genes: α-actinin 4 (ACTN4), canonical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6), and the inverted formin 2 (INF2) gene. More recently, INF2 mutations have also been attributed to Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy associated with FSGS. Here we performed direct sequencing, histological characterization, and functional studies in a cohort of families with autosomal dominant FSGS. We detected a novel mutation in exon 6 of the INF2 gene outside of the exon 2-4 candidate region used for rapid diagnosis of autosomal dominant FSGS. This new mutation is predicted to alter a highly conserved amino-acid residue within the 17th α-helix of the diaphanous inhibitory domain of the protein. A long-term follow-up of this family indicated that all patients were diagnosed in adulthood, as opposed to early childhood, and progression to end-stage renal disease was at different times without clinical or electrodiagnostic evidence of neuropathy. Thus, this novel mutation in INF2 linked to nonsyndromic FSGS indicates the necessity for full gene sequencing if no mutation is found in the current rapid-screen region of the gene. © 2012 International Society of Nephrology.

Rodado-Marina S.,La Paz Universitary Hospital | Coronado-Poggio M.,La Paz Universitary Hospital | Garcia-Vicente A.M.,Universitary Hospital | Garcia-Garzon J.R.,CETIR Unitat PET Esplugues | And 4 more authors.
BJU International | Year: 2015

Objective To evaluate 18F-fluorocholine positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in restaging patients with a history of prostate adenocarcinoma who have biochemical relapse after early radical treatment, and to correlate the technique's disease detection rate with a set of variables and clinical and pathological parameters. Patients and Methods This was a retrospective multicentre study that included 374 patients referred for choline-PET/CT who had biochemical relapse. In all, 233 patients who met the following inclusion criteria were analysed: diagnosis of prostate cancer; early radical treatment; biochemical relapse; main clinical and pathological variables; and clinical, pathological and imaging data needed to validate the results. Criteria used to validate the PET/CT: findings from other imaging techniques, clinical follow-up, treatment response and histological analysis. Different statistical tests were used depending on the distribution of the data to correlate the results of the choline-PET/CT with qualitative [T stage, N stage, early radical prostatectomy (RP) vs other treatments, hormone therapy concomitant to choline-PET/CT] and quantitative [age, Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at diagnosis, PSA nadir, PSA level on the day of the choline-PET/CT (Trigger PSA) and PSA doubling time (PSADT)] variables. We analysed whether there were independent predictive factors associated with positive PET/CT results. Results Choline-PET/CT was positive in 111 of 233 patients (detection rate 47.6%) and negative in 122 (52.4%). Disease locations: prostate or prostate bed in 26 patients (23.4%); regional and/or distant lymph nodes in 52 (46.8%); and metastatic bone disease in 33 (29.7%). Positive findings were validated by: results from other imaging techniques in 35 patients (15.0%); at least 6 months of clinical follow-up in 136 (58.4%); treatment response in 24 (10.3%); histological analysis of lesions in 17 (7.3%); and follow-up plus imaging results in 21 (9.0%). The statistical analysis of qualitative variables, corresponding to patients' clinical characteristics, and the positive/negative final PET/CT results revealed that only whether or not early treatment with RP was done was statistically significant (P < 0.001), with the number of positive results higher in patients who did not undergo a RP. Among the quantitative variables, Gleason score, Trigger PSA and PSADT clearly differentiated the two patient groups (positive and negative choline-PET/CT: P = 0.010, P = 0.001 and P = 0.025, respectively). A Gleason score of <5 or ≥8 clearly differentiated positive from negative PET. Trigger PSA: mean of 8 ng/mL for positive PET/CT vs 2.8 ng/mL for negative PET/CT; PSADT: mean of 8 months for positive vs 12.6 months for negative. The optimal threshold values were: 3 ng/mL for Trigger PSA level and 6 months for PSADT (Youden index/receiver operating characteristic curve). Analysing these two variables together showed that PSADT was more conclusive in patients with lower Trigger PSA levels. Analysing variables by location showed that only PSADT was able to differentiate between those with disease confined to the prostate compared with the other two locations (lymph nodes and bone), with shorter PSADT in these two, which was statistically significant (P < 0.002). In the patient group with a PSA level of <1.5 ng/mL, 30.8% had the disease, 7% of whom had metastatic bone disease. In the multivariate logistic regression, the risks factors that were clearly independent for those with positive PET/CT were: PSA level of >3 ng/mL, no early RP, and Gleason score of ≥8. Conclusion Our results support the usefulness of 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT in biochemical relapse of prostate cancer after radical treatment, with an overall disease detection rate close to 50%, and it can be recommended as first-line treatment. As mentioned above, besides Trigger PSA levels, there are other clinical and pathological variables that need to be considered so as to screen patients properly and thus minimise the number of nodular lesions and increase the diagnostic accuracy of the examination. © 2014 BJU International.

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