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Campina Grande, Burkina Faso

Machado S.C.,Universitario | McManus C.M.,University of Brasilia | Stumpf M.T.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Fischer V.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2014

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of concentrate-to-forage ratio (C:F) on the performance, blood profile, and milk physicochemical characteristics of mid-lactation cows fed a corn silage-based diet. Twenty four Holstein cows, with BW 575 ± 70 kg, body condition score (BCS) 3.1 ± 0.2, milk yield 18.4 ± 3.0 kg, and days in milk (DIM) 121 ± 21 were randomly allocated into three treatments with C:F ratios of 35:65, 45:55, and 55:45 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Data was submitted to analyses of variance and regression. Increasing C:F from 35 to 55 % linearly enhanced milk production (22 to 23.6 kg day-1) and serum urea nitrogen (16.8 to 19.6 mg/dL), while it linearly reduced lactose and fat in milk (4.8 to 4.6 %; 3.9 to 3.6 %, respectively). Body weight, BCS, milk acidity, ethanol stability, coagulation time, and milk and blood mineral contents did not differ among treatments. During the last period of measurements, increased C:F reduced urinary pH and milk urea nitrogen. Changes of concentrate-to-forage proportion from 35 to 55 % increased milk yield, altered chemical composition without changing BW, BCS, acidity, stability, and mineral content of milk and blood attributes. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Quirino B.S.,Universitario | Neto R.C.D.A.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Carvalho R.B.,Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais | Goulart I.B.,Pontifical Catholic University of Sao Paulo
Revista de Gestao Social e Ambiental | Year: 2015

This qualitative research with a descriptive purpose was conducted via case study. The object of this study is the Brazilian Government Housing Program "Minha Casa, Minha Vida" (PMCMV). The main objective is to analyze the Program through the perspectives of social innovation and public policy evolution. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, documentary research and direct observation in the Program's value constellation executed by a federal financial institution. The following analysis categories were: i) concept, legislation, metrics, and results of the Program; ii) The program business model; iii) social profit equation. Collected data was analyzed through processes of reduction, display, and verification. The research reinforces the study of Almeida (2011) who considers PMCMV a significant change milestone when compared to previous Brazilian public policies devoted to the housing issue. The results typify PMCMV as a real (Gustafsson, 1983), distributive (Lowi, 1964) and majoritarian (Wilson, 1983) public policy which is placed between the deployment and assessment phase of the evolutionary process (Secchi, 2013). The compilation of results strengthens the social innovation feature (Phills, 2009; Murray et al., 2010), associated to the Brazilian Government Housing Program "Minha Casa Minha Vida" and outlines the role of Government as an inductor of housing programs evolutionary path.

Carreno I.,Universitario | Bonilha A.L.L.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | da Costa J.S.D.,University of the Rio dos Sinos Valley
Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia | Year: 2012

This study analyzed the epidemiological profile of maternal deaths that occurred from 2004 to 2007 in Rio Grande do Sul, by means of Maternal Mortality Rates and Specific Maternal Mortality Ratio. Data was obtained from the Health Information System database and 323 maternal deaths were identified. In order to analyze indicators, Poisson regression and statistical tests were carried out. A decrease in maternal mortality rates (0.98) was identified, although there was no difference in estimate measures (CI95% 0.87-1.10). Maternal deaths were more frequent in women who were over 40 years old, had low schooling, black skin and no partners. The period of highest risk of maternal death was during pregnancy and birth, and the main direct causes were arterial hypertension and bleeding. Maternal mortality is an important issue to be confronted and reduced, given most maternal deaths could have been avoided.

Knicker H.,CSIC - Institute of Natural Resources and Agriculture Biology of Seville | Knicker H.,TU Munich | Nikolova R.,TU Munich | Dick D.P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Dalmolin R.S.D.,Universitario
Geoderma | Year: 2012

The impact of ceasing biannual burning on the composition and the amount of soil organic matter (SOM) in grassland soils from Southern Brazil was studied by means of solid-state 13C and 15N NMR spectroscopy using soil duplicates of fields without 1, 2, 5 and 22years of burning. The examination of the duplicates demonstrated good reproducibility. Demineralization of the soil with hydrofluoric acid (HF) indicated that the fire frequency had no impact on the amount of HF-extractable SOM. Exclusion of fire resulted in a considerable decrease of the organic C stocks, whereas N and S stocks were only slightly affected. The content of pyrogenic organic C (PyOC) in the soils was determined via a combination of chemical oxidation with acid dichromate and solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy of the oxidation resistant fraction. This analysis revealed that this decline was caused by the reduced input of decaying plant roots remaining in the soil after combustion of the aboveground vegetation during a fire. In spite of frequent burning for centuries, the PyOC concentrations were unexpectedly low in the top 5cm of the studied soils but increased clearly with soil depth, indicating that some charcoal constituents can be translocated with the soil solution. With respect to the stability of charcoal in the grassland soils, our study revealed that comparable to SOM, pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) is composed of fractions with different stability against microbial degradation. Whereas the labile PyOM fraction showed C losses similar to that of O-alkyl C, the more stable PyOM was selectively preserved together with an alkyl C fraction. Based on the results of the present study, one can conclude that frequent burning of grassland can lead to an increased C-sequestration potential of a soil. Because the input of the additional C is mainly caused by a higher biomass production after the fire, the additional SOM contributes to the labile pool with short turn-over times rather than to the recalcitrant carbon fraction. After ceasing burning, the reduced litter input cannot compensate the fast consumption of this pool and a quick decrease of the C stocks is expected. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Lopes Neto J.P.,Universitario | do Nascimento J.W.B.,Universitario
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2013

For design involving storage of bulk solids to be safe and reliable, it is important to know a large number of variables such as flow properties, geometry of silos and flow pattern. With the objective to validate prediction using flow theories and silo design procedures, the flow properties of three bulk solids were determined and Jenike's flow theory and Enstad's hopper design equations were applied and compared with those obtained experimentally in a reduced model of silo of semicircular section. The experimental results confirm the method of Jenike and Enstad for flow pattern and hopper design, respectively. The values of discharge orifice obtained by Jenike's equation are demonstrated to be oversized, being 45% higher than needed to provide flow.

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