Universitair Medisch Centrum St Radboud

Nijmegen, Netherlands

Universitair Medisch Centrum St Radboud

Nijmegen, Netherlands

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Berben S.A.,Universitair Medisch Centrum St Radboud
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde | Year: 2011

Pain management for trauma patients is a neglected aspect in the chain of emergency care in general practices, ambulance services, mobile trauma teams and in hospital emergency departments. The aim of the guideline 'Pain management for trauma patients in the chain of emergency care' is to provide pain management recommendations for trauma patients in the chain of emergency care and thereby improve the assistance that patients receive. Paracetamol is the treatment of choice, if necessary with additional use of NSAIDs or opioids; NSAIDs can be administered in the absence of contra-indications, but should be avoided in cases where the patient history is unknown; fentanyl and morphine can be given for severe pain during emergency care, esketamine can be considered in patients with severe pain and hypovolemia. The guideline contains 3 algorithms for measuring pain and for its pharmacological treatment in the chain of emergency care. Implementation of the algorithms requires an alternative working procedure; pain scores must be documented, and general practitioners and nursing staff may administer opioids intravenously.


Aerts M.B.,Universitair Medisch Centrum St Radboud
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde | Year: 2011

Medication compliance is generally suboptimal, particularly in patients with complex polypharmacy. This generic treatment problem is described here for Parkinson's disease (PD). We would expect patients with PD to have good medication compliance, since missed doses immediately result in worsening of symptoms. However, recent research has revealed that PD patients demonstrate poor medication compliance. Poor medication compliance is particularly undesirable for patients with PD because regular intake of medication is required for optimal treatment effect. Possible ways of improving medication compliance are pharmacotherapeutic measures and behavioural interventions. Modern methods of communication (text message reminders) and 'smart' pill dispensers may be beneficial, but the advantages of such interventions have not yet been scientifically studied.


Seinen L.H.,Universitair Medisch Centrum St Radboud
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde | Year: 2013

Nifedipine is used as a first choice tocolytic agent in many Dutch hospitals, but its use is discouraged in multiple gestations. Atosiban, a selective oxytocin receptor antagonist that rarely causes systemic side effects, is used as an alternative. A 32-year-old primigravida with spontaneous triplet pregnancy was admitted at 33 3/7 weeks for threatened preterm labour. For tocolysis, atosiban was administered for 48 hours together with betamethasone for foetal lung maturation. One day after treatment with atosiban she developed dyspnoea caused by pulmonary oedema. After a caesarean section and furosemide treatment the pulmonary oedema resolved. Analysis showed that atosiban was a likely cause of the pulmonary oedema. Every patient with multiple gestation is at increased risk of pulmonary oedema. Any tocolytic agent may elicit that response, even the relatively safe atosiban.


Verheugt F.,Universitair Medisch Centrum St Radboud
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde | Year: 2011

Cerebral infarction is the most serious complication of atrial fibrillation. Coumarin derivatives (vitamin K antagonists) counteract systemic thromboembolism and reduce the risk of stroke by more than 60%, but carry a risk of serious bleeding. Antiplatelet therapy and subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin are as yet not sufficiently effective and are associated with a bleeding risk similar to vitamin K antagonists. Vitamin K antagonists require intensive INR monitoring to ensure efficacy and safety. In the past decade, oral agents have been developed that directly inhibit the activity of thrombin (factor IIa) and of activated factor X (Xa), which is the first compound in the final common pathway of the coagulation cascade. These do require INR monitoring and have rapid onset and offset of action. The first results with thrombin blockers, such as dabigatran, look promising in efficacy and safety and Xa inhibitors are currently under investigation in atrial fibrillation in 3 large clinical trials. Long-term safety of the new agents in patients with atrial fibrillation has not yet been determined.


Gijtenbeek J.M.,Universitair Medisch Centrum St Radboud
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde | Year: 2011

Improved survival of cancer patients results in an increase in the incidence of brain metastases. In addition, asymptomatic brain metastases are more often detected as a consequence of active screening. In patients with cancer and new neurological symptoms, MRI of the brain is indicated to assess the presence and number of brain metastases. Decisions concerning treatment of brain metastases should take place within a multidisciplinary team. Treatment is in the first instance focused on improvement or preservation of neurological functioning. The main treatment options for patients with brain metastases are whole brain radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy, and neurosurgical resection. The choice of treatment depends on the number and the location of the brain metastases, the general and neurological condition of the patient, the extent of extracranial tumour activity, and the expected results of treatment. The revised guideline supports the policy of whole brain radiotherapy not being the standard treatment following stereotactic radiosurgery or radiotherapy. In the case of complete resection, confirmed using early postoperative MRI, whole brain radiotherapy does not add to survival benefit, while patients may suffer from radiation-induced toxicity.


Infantile haemangiomas (IH) are the most commonly occurring benign tumours of infancy, which may lead to considerable morbidity, such as amblyopia, ulceration and airway obstruction, depending on localization. Until recently, treatment was difficult: high-dose systemic glucocorticoids had limited effect and serious side effects. In 2008, the effectiveness of the beta-blocker propranolol for infantile haemangiomas was discovered; by now there is extensive worldwide experience. Data from the literature and from our own patient cohort (n = 132) confirm the remarkable efficacy of propranolol in complicated IH, without significant adverse effects. Propranolol is most effective in the proliferation phase of IH in children under 6 months of age. Timely referral of patients with potentially function-threatening or life-changing IH to a specialised multidisciplinary centre is therefore essential. Pending controlled studies, propranolol appears to have become the first choice treatment in complicated IH.


Verbeek A.L.,Universitair Medisch Centrum St Radboud
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde | Year: 2011

In the Netherlands, national screening programs for breast and cervical cancer are operating, whilst that for colorectal cancer is in preparation. In the meantime, experimental studies have been conducted into the effectiveness of prostate and lung cancer screening. Death from these five types of cancer is reduced by these screening investigations. However, these screening programmes also have disadvantages, such as unnecessary referral for definitive diagnosis in the hospital. The average hospital would receive on a yearly basis via screening 156 referrals of women with breast cancer, 79 for cervical cancer and nearly 1100 persons for colorectal cancer. n average general practice encounters annually 3 positive screening results for breast cancer, almost 1 referral for cervical carcinoma or an early stage thereof, and every two years a patient with CIN III. For colorectal cancer around 22 referrals can be expected yearly, of which 8 will have adenoma or cancer.


Gotthardt M.,Universitair Medisch Centrum St Radboud
Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear medicine | Year: 2010

Patient-individual dosimetric analyses are a useful tool in external beam radiotherapy (EBR) to protect patients from side effects such as radiogenic nephropathy. At this point in time, individual dosimetry is not used as a standard in patient treated with radiolabelled antibody fragments or polypeptides. The reasons are a number of problems, which make patient dosimetry more challenging than in EBR. While in EBR, the dose is distributed evenly in the organ and the organ volume can exactly be determined, in internal radiotherapy the tracer is not evenly distributed within the organ leading to a non-uniform dose distribution. In addition, the dose rate of the most commonly used radionuclides is lower than in EBR and the range of their radiation differ, so that the radiobiological effects are differing considerably in comparison to EBR. Conclusion: More complex models have to be used for clinical kidney dosimetry in internal radiotherapy. In this paper, we give a concise overview of the reasons for accumulation of radiotracers in the kidney, the most recent developments in kidney dosimetry, and approaches to reduce the kidney uptake of radiotracers in order to avoid radiogenic nephropathy.


Meijerink H.,Universitair Medisch Centrum St Radboud
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde | Year: 2013

Intravenous drug use is a major international health problem. The transmission of HIV through sharing syringes or needles during drug use is an important part of this problem. Injection drug users (IDUs) also engage in high-risk sexual behaviour which facilitates the transmission between different groups. In this article, we present a global perspective of injection drug use in relation to HIV. There are 16 million IDUs worldwide, of whom an estimated 3 million are infected with HIV. The prevalence of HIV among IDUs varies greatly between countries as well as within them. There are intervention programmes to prevent HIV transmission via drug use such as needle and syringe exchange programmes (NSPs) and opioid substitution therapy (OST). These programmes are effective for preventing HIV transmission, provided that their implementation is adequate. 80% of the countries provide NSPs, 65% also provide OST. The coverage of these services is nevertheless insufficient to have an impact on the transmission of HIV.


The mould Aspergillus fumigatus may develop mechanisms that confer resistance to itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole. In the Netherlands a dominant resistance mechanism referred to as TR/L98H is found. In A. fumigatus isolates recovered from clinical samples in Dutch hospitals the prevalence of azole resistance varied between 0.8% and 9.4%. The TR/L98H resistance mechanism probably develops in our environment, as azoles are frequently used for crop protection and material preservation. It is likely that breathing in the resistant spores of these strains from the environment leads to clinical infection. More research is needed to understand the environmental route of resistance development and to enable effective measures to prevent this occurring. Azole resistance is associated with treatment failure. Of 8 patients with azole-resistant invasive aspergillosis 7 died within 12 weeks of diagnosis. Alternative treatment regimens might include lipid-formulation of amphotericin B or a combination of voriconazole and an echinocandin, but there is little data available to support these choices. Physicians who treat patients with Aspergillus diseases should be aware of the possibility of azole resistance, also in azole-naïve patients.

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