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Lacombe D.,EORTC Headquarters | Tejpar S.,UZ Leuven Campus Gasthuisberg | Salgado R.,Institute Jules Bordet | Cardoso F.,Champalimaud Cancer Center | And 5 more authors.
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology | Year: 2014

Health systems and the clinical research landscape evolve continuously owing to increased risk aversion, scrutiny by funding bodies, and costs of clinical trials. In this context, however, current drug development procedures are far from optimal, as exemplified by the late-stage failure of several drugs. The identification of new drugs urgently requires approaches based on a solid understanding of cancer biology, and that will support the design of robust confirmatory trials. The complexity and the costs of drug development are now beyond the knowledge and operational capacity of single organisations, therefore, a drastic deviation from the traditional path of drug discovery and new forms of multidisciplinary partnerships are needed to succeed in this sector. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) proposes the use of collaborative molecular screening platforms (CMSPs) as a new approach to tackle this issue. These CMSPs have the advantage of optimizing the expertise of several partners and combining efforts alongside with cost-sharing models for efficient patient selection. This article describes some of the challenges to advancing drug development and improving medical treatments and how these hurdles can be overcome. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Deeg H.J.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Deeg H.J.,University of Washington | Scott B.L.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Scott B.L.,University of Washington | And 27 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2012

Clonal cytogenetic abnormalities are a major risk factor for relapse after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). We determined the impact of the recently established 5-group cytogenetic classification of MDS on outcome after HCT. Results were compared with the impact of the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) 3 cytogenetic risk groups, and the additional effect of a monosomal karyotype was assessed. The study included data on 1007 patients, 1-75 years old (median 45 years), transplanted from related (n = 547) or unrelated (n = 460) donors. Various conditioning regimens were used, and marrow, peripheral blood, or cord blood served as stem cell source. Both IPSS and 5-group cytogenetic risk classifications were significantly associated with post-HCT relapse and mortality, but the 5-group classification discriminated more clearly among the lowest- and highest-risk patients.Amonosomal karyotype tended to further increase the rates of relapse and mortality, even after considering the IPSS or 5-group classifications. In addition, the pathologic disease category correlated with both relapse and mortality. Mortality was also impacted by patient age, donor type, conditioning regimen, platelet count, and etiology of MDS. Although mortality declined significantly in recent years, novel strategies are needed to overcome the barrier of highrisk cytogenetics. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology.

Werutsky G.,EORTC Headquarters | Ducreux M.,Institute Gustave Roussy | Lutz M.,Caritasklinik St Theresa | Mauer M.,EORTC Headquarters | And 9 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer, Supplement | Year: 2012

During the last decades, the evolution of treatment - including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted agents - has improved the cure and survival of patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. Within the past 50 years of the EORTC's existence, significant progress has been made in the fight against cancer. During this time several cancer clinical trials were completed, and through these we are able to identify the most notable advances in GI cancer research done by the EORTC Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer Group (GI Group). Several EORTC clinical trials results have changed practice (e.g. standard of care of liver metastases of colorectal cancer has been changed by the EPOC trial) or have helped to support new treatment strategies in either early- or advanced-stage GI cancers. In addition to its clinical activities the group has started an extensive program of translational research. This changed strategy towards a translational, multidisciplinary program regarded as the basis for future developments. This review of the major achievements of the GI Group shows that it has played an important role in the scientific development of the understanding and treatment of GI cancer over the last 50 years. © 2012 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer.

Osterborg A.,Karolinska University Hospital | Udvardy M.,Institute of Internal Medicine Building B | Andersson P.-O.,Sodra Alvsborgs Sjukhus | Grosicki S.,Silesian Medical University | And 14 more authors.
Leukemia and Lymphoma | Year: 2016

We report results of a randomized, phase III study of ofatumumab versus physicians’ choice treatment in patients with bulky fludarabine-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia and explore extended versus standard-length ofatumumab treatment. Patients (79 ofatumumab, 43 physicians’ choice) completed a median 6 (ofatumumab) or 3 (physicians’ choice) months’ therapy. Ofatumumab-treated patients with stable disease or better were randomized (2:1) to 6 months’ extended ofatumumab treatment or observation. Although the study did not meet the primary endpoint of progression-free survival (PFS) by independent review committee (ofatumumab: 5.4 months, physicians’ choice: 3.6 months; p = 0.27), median PFS by investigators was significantly longer for ofatumumab versus physicians’ choice (7.0 versus 4.5 months; p = 0.003) as was time to next therapy (median 11.5 versus 6.5 months; p = 0.0004). PFS and time to next therapy were significantly longer with ofatumumab extended treatment than observation (p = 0.026 and p = 0.002, respectively; n = 37). The adverse-event profile of long-term ofatumumab administration showed no unexpected findings (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01313689). © 2016 Taylor & Francis

Ratajczak M.Z.,University of Louisville | Ratajczak M.Z.,Medical University of Warsaw | Borkowska S.,University of Louisville | Mierzejewska K.,Pomeranian Medical University | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine | Year: 2015

The glycolipid glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (GPI-A) plays an important role in lipid raft formation, which is required for proper expression on the cell surface of two inhibitors of the complement cascade, CD55 and CD59. The absence of these markers from the surface of blood cells, including erythrocytes, makes the cells susceptible to complement lysis, as seen in patients suffering from paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH). However, the explanation for why PNH-affected hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) expand over time in BM is still unclear. Here, we propose an explanation for this phenomenon and provide evidence that a defect in lipid raft formation in HSPCs leads to defective CXCR4- and VLA-4-mediated retention of these cells in BM. In support of this possibility, BM-isolated CD34+ cells from PNH patients show a defect in the incorporation of CXCR4 and VLA-4 into membrane lipid rafts, respond weakly to SDF-1 stimulation, and show defective adhesion to fibronectin. Similar data were obtained with the GPI-A- Jurkat cell line. Moreover, we also report that chimeric mice transplanted with CD55-/- CD59-/- BM cells but with proper GPI-A expression do not expand over time in transplanted hosts. On the basis of these findings, we propose that a defect in lipid raft formation in PNH-mutated HSPCs makes these cells more mobile, so that they expand and out-compete normal HSPCs from their BM niches over time. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

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