Universitadegli Studi del Molise

Pesche, Italy

Universitadegli Studi del Molise

Pesche, Italy
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Trico D.,Yale University | Prinsen H.,Yale University | Giannini C.,Yale University | De Graaf R.,Yale University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2017

Context: Traditional risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus are weak predictors of changes in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in youth. Objective: To identify early metabolic features of insulin resistance (IR) in youth and whether they predict deterioration of glycemic control. Design and Setting: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study was conducted at the Yale Pediatric Obesity Clinic. Patients and Intervention: Concentrations of a-hydroxybutyrate, b-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 78 nondiabetic adolescents during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Associations between baseline metabolic alterations and longitudinal changes in glucose control were tested in 16 subjects after a mean follow-up of 2.3 years. Main Outcome Measures: The relationship between metabolite levels, parameters of IR, and glycemic control, and their progression over time. Results: Elevated fasting a-hydroxybutyrate levels were observed in adolescents with reduced insulin sensitivity after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, Tanner stage, and body mass index z-score (P = 0.014). Plasmaa-hydroxybutyrate and BCAAswere increased throughout the course of theOGTT in this group (P, 0.03). Notably, borderline IR was associated with a progressive a-hydroxybutyrate decrease from elevated baseline concentrations to normal levels (P = 0.02). Increased baseline a-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were further associated with progressive worsening of glucose tolerance and disposition index. Conclusion: a-HydroxybutyrateandBCAAconcentrationsduring anOGTTcharacterizeinsulin-resistant youth andpredict worseningofglycemic control. These findingsprovide potentialbiomarkers for risk assessment of type 2 diabetes and new insights into IR pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.


Marchetti M.,Universitadegli Studi del Molise | Tognetti R.,Universitadegli Studi del Molise | Lombardi F.,Universitadegli Studi del Molise | Chiavetta U.,Universitadegli Studi del Molise | And 12 more authors.
Plant Biosystems | Year: 2010

The maintenance of certain levels of old forest represents a cornerstone of the EU's biodiversity management strategy. A consensus on a single general ecological definition of old-growth is particularly difficult in Mediterranean Europe. The present paper deals with old-growth forests and persistent woodlands in the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park (PNCVD) to give an ecological understanding of forest complexity and dynamics under a multiscale and multidisciplinary perspective. The multiscale approach ranged from the identification and mapping of potential old-growth stands at landscape scale to a two-level field review of forest stand features. Field sampling involved a multidisciplinary team of researchers in forest structure, pedologic environment, soil microbial activity, flora and vegetation and deadwood components. The research provided sound knowledge about old-growthness features in the PNCVD that constitutes a unique case study in the whole Mediterranean basin. The integration of results allowed to: identify main ecosystem functions and the related services of the old-growth forests in the study area; distinguish persistent woodlands, multi-aged stands with old trees deriving from nineteenth-century management practices, from old-growth forests sensu strictu; recognize indicators of direct and indirect impacts of human activities; suggest effective practices for sustainable management in the Mediterranean context. © 2010 Società Botanica Italiana.


Palazzo M.,Universitadegli Studi Del Molise | Vizzarri F.,Universitadegli Studi Del Molise | Cinone M.,University of Bari | Corino C.,University of Milan | Casamassima D.,Universitadegli Studi Del Molise
Animal | Year: 2011

Two different doses of a natural extract titrated in phenylpropanoid glycosides (PPGs) were evaluated for their effect on blood parameters and plasma oxidative status in pairs of intensively reared Italian hares. The study lasted 210 days, during which 45 couples of hares were divided into three homogeneous groups. A control group (CON) was fed a control diet while the two experimental groups were fed a diet supplemented with 1 or 2 kg/t of a supplement titrated in PPGs. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 70, 140 and 210 days and assayed for plasma lipid profiles, bilirubin, haematological parameters and indicators of oxidative status (reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), vitamins A and E). Although dietary treatment did affect the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and total bilirubin, all of which decreased markedly (P < 0.05), while significantly increasing the (P < 0.01) HDL cholesterol values, it also significantly improved the oxidative status of the blood, which displayed an increase in both vitamin E (P < 0.01) and vitamin A (P < 0.05) and a decrease in ROMs (P < 0.01) and TBARS (P < 0.05). The improvements in the blood parameters, lipid profile and plasma oxidative status continued to increase significantly as the trial progressed, indicating a positive effect with increased length of treatment. The results of this study demonstrate an important role for feed supplementation with respect to antioxidant activity on some blood parameters, including the lipid profile and the oxidative status of blood. © 2011 The Animal Consortium.


Fratianni F.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | Cardinale F.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | Russo I.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | Iuliano C.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Microencapsulation | Year: 2014

The probiotic yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii, was microencapsulated in a mixture of alginate-inulin-xanthan gum, and its ability to grow in berry juice and survive 4 weeks of storage at 4-°C was determined. Exposure of the yeast in these forms to artificial gastrointestinal conditions was also assessed. Encapsulation significantly enhanced cell viability after fermentation and storage compared with the free yeast (7.59-log10 colony forming units/ml versus 6.98-log10 colony forming units/ml, respectively) and protected it from exposure to a simulated gastrointestinal transit after 4 weeks of storage. Conversely, a dramatic loss of viability was exhibited by free yeast after 4 weeks of storage, and viability values closer to zero (0.23-log10-cfu/ml) were found after the simulated gastrointestinal treatment. Microcapsules were capable of absorbing a certain amount of polyphenols and anthocyanins. This work, based on use of microencapsulated probiotic yeasts, might represent the starting point for the development of new functional foods or functional ingredients. Microcapsules were capable to absorb, from berry juice, a certain amount of anthocyanins which, maintaining their native form after the in vitro gastrointestinal transit, might in vivo therein be transformed into other, simpler molecules, with beneficial effect on microflora and human health too. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.

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