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Adkar-Purushothama C.R.,Universitadegli Studi | Quaglino F.,Universitadegli Studi | Casati P.,Universitadegli Studi | Bianco P.A.,Universitadegli Studi
Annals of Applied Biology | Year: 2011

In previous work, Coorg black pepper yellows phytoplasma (CBPYp), a 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris'-related strain, was identified in association with black pepper plants exhibiting yellows symptoms in southern India. In the present study, multiple gene (16S rRNA, tuf, rplV-rpsC, secY and secA) sequence analyses were carried out for finer characterisation of CBPYp isolates identified in seven plants. Nucleotide sequences of each gene studied were identical among all the CBPYp isolates here analysed. Comparison of virtual restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns, validated by actual digestion of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products, revealed that CBPYp is a member of subgroups 16SrI-B, rpI-L, tufI-B, secYI-L and secA1-A. Interestingly, alignments of nucleotide sequences with other 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris'-related strains revealed the presence of CBPYp-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located in restriction sites for endonucleases not used for conventional classification. CBPYp-specific SNPs in genes 16S rRNA, tuf and secA were detectable by virtual and actual RFLP assays, while SNPs present in rplV-rpsC and secY genes were not located in any restriction recognition site. CBPYp-specific SNPs can be used as molecular markers for the specific identification of CBPYp and for future research focused on investigating epidemiology and ecology of CBPYp in India. © 2011 The Authors. Annals of Applied Biology © 2011 Association of Applied Biologists.


Gattinoni L.,Universitadegli Studi | Carlesso E.,Universitadegli Studi | Brazzi L.,Universitadegli Studi | Caironi P.,Universitadegli Studi
Current Opinion in Critical Care | Year: 2010

Purpose of review: In the last 2 years, several reports have dealt with recruitment/positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) selection. Most of them confirm previous results and few add new information. Recent findings: It has been definitely confirmed that opening pressures are different throughout the acute respiratory distress syndrome lung parenchyma, ranging from 5-10 up to 30-40 cmH2O. The highest opening pressures are required to open the most dependent lung regions. It has been found that in 2 s, most of the recruitable lung regions may be open when a proper pressure is applied. The best way to assess recruitment is computed tomography scanning, whereas lung mechanics are a reasonable bedside surrogate. Impedance tomography has been increasingly tested, whereas gas exchange is the less reliable indicator of recruitment. A large outcome study showed that higher PEEP might provide survival benefit in a subgroup of more severe patients as compared with lower PEEP. To set PEEP in each individual patient, the use of the expiratory limb of the pressure-volume curve has been suggested. Setting PEEP according to transpulmonary pressure has a robust physiological background, although it requires confirmatory study. Summary: Indiscriminate application of recruitment maneuver in unselected acute respiratory distress syndrome population does not provide benefits. However, in the most severe patients, recruitment maneuver has to be considered and higher PEEP applied. To individualize PEEP, the expiratory phase has to be considered, and the esophageal pressure measurement to compute the transpulmonary pressure should be progressively introduced in clinical practice. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Panteghini M.,Universitadegli Studi | Ceriotti F.,Instituto Scientifico Universitario ffaele
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2012

An issue associated with standardization efforts is the need to develop useful reference intervals (RI). Lack of proper RI may hamper the implementation of standardization in Laboratory Medicine as standardization can modify analyte results and, without adequate RI, this can impair the result interpretation. Once defined, RI obtained with analytical procedures that produce results traceable to the corresponding reference system can be transferred among laboratories, providing that they use commercial assays that produce results traceable to the same reference system and populations have the same characteristics. Multicenter studies are needed for a robust definition of traceable RI, using experimental protocols that include well defined prerequisites. Particularly, employed methods must produce results that are traceable to the reference system for that specific analyte. Thus, the trueness of laboratories producing reference values should be verified and, if necessary, experimental results corrected in accordance with correlation results with the selected reference. If requirements in the adoption of traceable RI are fulfilled, the possibility of providing RI that are applicable to any laboratory, able to produce results traceable to the reference system, is realistic. The definition of traceable RI should hopefully cause the disappearance of different RI employed for the same analyte, providing more effective information to clinicians. © 2012 by Walter de Gruyter • Berlin • Boston.


Zito P.,Universitadegli Studi Palermo | Sajeva M.,Universitadegli Studi Palermo | Bruno M.,Universitadegli Studi | Maggio A.,Universitadegli Studi | And 3 more authors.
Natural Product Research | Year: 2011

The essential oil of the fruits of Periploca laevigata Aiton subsp. angustifolia (Labill.) Markgraf (Apocynaceae) from Lampedusa Island was obtained by hydrodistillation and its composition was analysed. The analyses allowed the identification and quantification of 64 volatile compounds belonging to different classes. The most abundant compounds were nonacosane, heptacosane, hentriacontane and δ-cadinene. Among the volatile compounds identified in the fruits of P. laevigata subsp. angustifolia, 31 are present in other taxa of Apocynaceae, 19 have antimicrobial activity and four are pheromones for the butterfly Danaus chrysippus. The possible ecological role of the volatile compounds found is briefly discussed. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


Piccioni F.,Fondazione IRCCS Instituto Nazionale Dei Tumori | Langer M.,Fondazione IRCCS Instituto Nazionale Dei Tumori | Fumagalli L.,Fondazione IRCCS Instituto Nazionale Dei Tumori | Haeusler E.,Fondazione IRCCS Instituto Nazionale Dei Tumori | Previtali P.,Universitadegli Studi
Anaesthesia | Year: 2010

Thoracic paravertebral blockade has been described as an effective alternative to epidural blockade for the management of postoperative pain after thoracic surgery. Here we present what we believe is the first description of the use of thoracic paravertebral block as the sole anaesthetic for video-assisted thoracoscopy. Two oncology patients with severe respiratory disease presented for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Thoracic paravertebral block provided excellent surgical conditions and postoperative pain relief for these patients and allowed an optimal assessment of the anaesthetic impact on respiratory function. © © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.


Jovane L.,UK National Oceanography Center | Jovane L.,University of Sao Paulo | Savian J.F.,UK National Oceanography Center | Savian J.F.,University of Sao Paulo | And 8 more authors.
Geological Society Special Publication | Year: 2013

The Monte Cagnero sedimentary section, which crops out in the northeastern Apennines near Urbania in the Umbria-Marche Basin (Italy), contains well-exposed strata spanning the middle Eocene to lower Oligocene interval. We use an integrated magnetobiostratigraphic approach to generate a high-resolution age model for the Monte Cagnero section, with the goal of obtaining a reliable chronostratigraphic framework for studying Eocene-Oligocene palaeoceanographic changes during the switch from greenhouse to icehouse conditions. The studied sediments consist of alternating reddish and greenish limestones and marlstones. A new integrated age model for the section is based on high-resolution palaeomagnetic analyses, combined with detailed planktonic foraminiferal and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphic results. Rock magnetic measurements show that the magnetic mineralogy is dominated by a mixture of high-and low-coercivity minerals, probably representing a combination of hematite and magnetite. A robust magnetostratigraphic signal, together with the identification of key planktonic foraminiferal and nannofossil biostratigraphic events, allows construction of a detailed age model for the section. Based on these results, we infer that the section spans a continuous interval (within magnetochron resolution) from the middle Eocene to lower Oligocene (c. 41-27 Ma; Chrons C18r-C12r). The Monte Cagnero section, therefore, represents a sequence that is suitable for studying the impact of the Neo-Tethyan gateway closure on subtropical Eocene circulation and determining the nature and timing of palaeoceanographic changes in the Tethys through the late middle Eocene to early Oligocene interval. © The Geological Society of London 2013.


Ferraro S.,SCDO Cardiologia | Ferraro S.,Universitadegli Studi | Boracchi P.,Universitadegli Studi | Santagostino M.,SCDO Cardiologia | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Third generation troponin assays should aid in the rule-out of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The study aim was to assess the capability of admission measurement of ultra-sensitive troponin I (TnI-Ultra) to exclude AMI from other myocardial injury. Methods: The first TnI-Ultra sample from 856 patients at presentation to the Emergency Department and subsequent admission to the Cardiac Care Unit were considered in this case series. Myoglobin was simultaneously detected in 684 patients. Results: The sensitivity of the first single TnI-Ultra level was 82.5 % in overall AMI, and similar in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), admitted, respectively at 3 and 8 h from symptoms. The diagnostic capability of a first single TnIUltra level was poor for both STEMI and NSTEMI to discriminate and rule-out overall AMI from myocardial injury, with an area under the receiver-operating curve of 0.65 and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.55. Adopting an optimal test threshold or adding myoglobin detection did not improve TnI-Ultra performances. Conclusions: The capability of a first single TnI-Ultra level to exclude AMI from other myocardial injury in early and late presenters is poor. Addition of myoglobin assay offered no further improvement and was not considered useful. © 2011 by Walter de Gruyter.


Lombardi C.,Universitadegli Studi | Castrini A.I.,Universitadegli Studi | Metra M.,Universitadegli Studi | Carubelli V.,Universitadegli Studi | And 3 more authors.
Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia | Year: 2012

Several large-scale trials have demonstrated improved survival with the administration of ACE-inhibitors to patients with a recent myocardial infarction. Many ACE-inhibitors with different pharmacological properties have been shown to be safe and effective. More recently the data provided by the Survival of Myocardial Infarction Long-term Evaluation (SMILE) program indicate that zofenopril may favorably affect the prognosis of patients with a recent myocardial infarction and, according to the results of the SMILE-4 study, it may be superior to ramipril with respect to some variables (cardiovascular hospitalizations) when both these ACE-inhibitors are administered combined with acetylsalicylic acid. © 2012 Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore.

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