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Arau´jo F.,Centro Hospitalar Of Lisbon Ocidental Epe | Arau´jo F.,University of Lisbon | Cordeiro I.,Hospital Garcia de Orta | Teixeira F.,Hospital Conde de Bertiandos | And 12 more authors.
Acta Reumatologica Portuguesa | Year: 2014

Objective: To develop Portuguese evidence-based recommendations for the Diagnosis and Management of Gout. Methods: As part of the 3e Initiative (Evidence, Expertise and Exchange), a panel of 78 international rheumatologists developed 10 relevant clinical questions which were investigated with systematic literature reviews. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL and abstracts from 2010-2011 EULAR and ACR meetings were searched. Based on the evidence found in the published literature, rheumatologists from 14 countries developed national recommendations that were merged and voted into multinational recommendations. We present the Portuguese recommendations for the Diagnosis and Management of Gout which were formulated and voted by Delphi method in April 2012, in Lisbon. The level of agreement and potential impact in clinical practice was also assessed. Results: Twelve national recommendations were elaborated from 10 international and 2 national questions. These recommendations addressed the diagnosis of gout; the treatment of acute flares and urate-lowering therapy; monitoring of gout and comorbidity screening; the influence of comorbidities in drug choice; lifestyle flareprophylaxis; management of tophi and asymptomatic hyperuricaemia; the role of urine alkalinization; and the burden of gout. The level of agreement with the recommendations ranged from 6.8 to 9.0 (mean 7.7) on a 1-10 point visual analogue scale, in which 10 stands for full agreement. Conclusion: The 12 Portuguese recommendations for the Diagnosis and Management of Gout were formulated according to the best evidence and endorsed by a panel of 42 rheumatologists, enhancing their validity and practical use in daily clinical practice. Source


Palma V.,Universitaacute | Castaldo F.,Universitaacute | Ciambelli P.,Universitaacute | Iaquaniello G.,Tecnimont KT S.p.A
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy | Year: 2012

As a provider of our energy requirements, hydrogen seems to be one of most promising fuels, in particular when used to feed PEM fuel cells. When produced from a renewable source, it has got the potential to reduce the dependence on non-renewable fossil fuels and lower the amount of harmful emissions. Ethanol steamreforming (ESR) reaction is an interesting option to obtain a H 2- and CH 4-rich stream with a low content of CO, combining the deep knowledge of the technology with the advantage of the biomass-derived feedstock. Thermodynamic analysis has indicated that the most interesting operating range to enhance the H 2 production and minimize CO and coke formation requires low pressure, high temperature, and high water-to-ethanol molar ratio. On the other hand, despite its endothermic nature, ESR could be carried out at low temperature, to increase overall thermal efficiency, even if at these conditions the catalyst's deactivation, due to coking and sintering phenomena, is not negligible. The main objective of this study is to investigate on the activity, stability, and durability of bimetallic Pt-Ni and Pt-Co catalysts supported on CeO 2 for lowtemperature bio-ESR reaction. The catalysts have been prepared through different methods and with an optimized metal's content. They have also been characterized with various physico-chemical characterization tests, and the catalytic studies have been carried out in a lab-scale apparatus. While evaluating the effects on the catalysts' performances of preparation method, reaction temperature, space time, and water-to-ethanol molar ratio, the selected catalysts were found effective for the production of H 2 by steam reforming at low temperature. In particular, the Pt/Ni/CeO2 catalyst shows a perfect agreement with equilibrium calculations yet at low contact times, although some carbon deposition occurs. Also the cobalt-based catalysts appear attractive. The relative rates of carbon growth versus gasification have been studied, and ascending water contents were used to study the effect of steam addition in the feed stream. An in-depth investigation of the reaction mechanism and the evaluation of the kinetic parameters will be crucial to complete the study of the proposed process. © US Government 2012. Source


Costantino N.,Universitaacute | Serventi R.,Austriamicrosystems AG | Tinfena F.,Austriamicrosystems AG | D'Abramo P.,Universitaacute | And 4 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2011

The design and characterization in high-voltage (HV)-CMOS technology of an innovative intelligent power switch (IPS) for harsh automotive applications is proposed in this paper. To safely handle the ordinary and extraordinary automotive electrical and environmental conditions, a systematic design flow is followed: several design solutions are presented at the architectural and circuital level, integrating on-chip self-diagnostic capabilities and full protection against the high voltage and reverse polarity, the effects of wiring parasitics, and the over-current and over-temperature phenomena. Moreover, the current slope and soft start integrated techniques ensure a low electromagnetic interference, and the IPS is also configurable to efficiently drive different interchangeable loads. The innovative IPS has been implemented in a 0.35-μm HV-CMOS technology and has been embedded in mechatronic third generation brush-holder regulator system-on-chip for an automotive alternator. The electrical simulations and experimental characterization and the testing at component and on-board system levels prove that the proposed design allows a compact and smart power switch realization facing the harshest automotive conditions. © 2006 IEEE. Source

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