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Lauzacco, Italy

Tiepolo M.,CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources | Vannucci R.,Universita Of Pavia
Lithos | Year: 2014

The continental crust (CC) and the depleted mantle (DM) are generally assumed to be complementary reservoirs within the Earth. However, the mixture between CC and upper mantle does not generate the Nb/Ta and Nb/La ratios of chondrites. A reservoir with superchondritic ratios for Nb/Ta and Nb/La is thus required in the Earth's system. The occurrence of a hidden amphibole reservoir in the lower arc crust has been recently proposed. This, coupled with the capability of calcic amphibole to give rise to a superchondritic Nb/Ta and Nb/La reservoir, led us to determine to what extent amphibole-rich ultramafic rocks can account for the Nb (and Nb/Ta, Nb/La as well) imbalance on Earth. We have considered lower crust mafic and ultramafic amphibole-rich intrusive rocks fromcollisional settingsworldwide. Because CC is considered to have primarily formed in collisional setting these rocks are important for its geneticmodel. We modeled Nb, Ta and La contents of the hidden Nb reservoir by mass balance calculations between continental crust, depleted mantle and primitive mantle. Modeling shows that amphibole-rich mafic lower crust can solve the so-called Nb paradox if large volumes of materials are supposed to be returned into the mantle during the Earth's history. A possible mechanism is recycling, particularly in Precambrian times, of eclogites that underwent pre-eclogitic melting in the amphibolite facies field and then recrystallized under eclogite-facies conditions. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Heard M.E.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Besio R.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Besio R.,Universita Of Pavia | Weis M.,University of Washington | And 14 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2016

Collagen is a major component of the extracellular matrix and its integrity is essential for connective tissue and organ function. The importance of proteins involved in intracellular collagen post-translational modification, folding and transport was recently highlighted from studies on recessive forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Here we describe the critical role of SC65 (Synaptonemal Complex 65, P3H4), a leprecan-family member, as part of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) complex with prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3. This complex affects the activity of lysyl-hydroxylase 1 potentially through interactions with the enzyme and/or cyclophilin B. Loss of Sc65 in the mouse results in instability of this complex, altered collagen lysine hydroxylation and cross-linking leading to connective tissue defects that include low bone mass and skin fragility. This is the first indication of a prolyl-hydroxylase complex in the ER controlling lysyl-hydroxylase activity during collagen synthesis. © 2016 Heard et al.

Pinto F.,Marcianise Hospital | Valentino M.,S. Antonio Abate Hospital | Romanini L.,Universita Of Pavia | Basilico R.,Universita Of Chieti | Miele V.,UOC di Diagnostica per Immagini Cardiovascolare e dUrgenza
Radiologia Medica | Year: 2014

Computed tomography (CT) still represents the preferred imaging method in the assessment of patients presenting with multiple trauma. Nevertheless, in patients with low-energy abdominal trauma, the use of CT is debated because of the possible unnecessary radiation exposure. Accordingly, conventional ultrasound (US) imaging has been increasingly employed as the initial imaging modality in the workup of minor traumatic emergency conditions. Focused assessment with sonography for trauma is widely used to detect free intra-abdominal fluid, but its role is controversial, because the absence of free fluid does not exclude the presence of injuries to abdominal organ. Injection of an ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) may give the radiologist relevant additional information to that obtained with conventional US. Thus, in trauma patients, following early assessment with conventional US imaging, a contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) can provide a more reliable evaluation of solid organ injuries and related vascular complications, including active bleeding, pseudoaneurysms, and artero-venous fistulas. CEUS cannot replace abdominal CT, but it represents a noninvasive and repeatable imaging tool capable of providing a reliable assessment of trauma severity and expedite the patient’s treatment. © 2014, Italian Society of Medical Radiology.

Tosi D.,University of Limerick | Macchi E.G.,Universita Of Pavia | Gallati M.,Universita Of Pavia | Braschi G.,Universita Of Pavia | And 4 more authors.
Biomedical Optics Express | Year: 2014

A linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating (LCFBG) has been used as a temperature sensor for online monitoring of radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA). The LCFBG acts as a distributed sensor, with spatial resolution of 75 μm. A white-light setup that records the LCFBG spectrum estimates the temperature profile in real time. Three RFTA experiments have been performed ex-vivo on porcine liver measuring the radial temperature distribution during the heating process. The analysis of thermal maps quantifies the spatial heat distribution along the measurement axis and determines the ablation efficiency. ©2013 Optical Society of America.

Liberale C.,Italian Institute of Technology | Cojoc G.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics | Rajamanickam V.,Italian Institute of Technology | Ferrara L.,Italian Institute of Technology | And 7 more authors.
Springer Series in Surface Sciences | Year: 2015

Optical tweezers represent a powerful tool for a variety of applications both in biology and in physics, and their miniaturization and full integration is of great interest so as to reduce size (towards portable systems), and to minimize the required intervention from the operator. Optical fibers represent a natural solution to achieve this goal, and here we review the realization of single-fiber optical tweezers able to create a purely optical three-dimensional trap. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

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