Gigante B.,Institute of Environmental Medicine IMM |
Gigante B.,Karolinska Institutet |
Leander K.,Institute of Environmental Medicine IMM |
Vikstro m M.,Institute of Environmental Medicine IMM |
And 23 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2014
Objective: Low levels of IgM anti-phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) increase the risk of cardiovascular events (CVE). Here we investigate the association of low anti-PC with the progression of carotid intima media thickness (C-IMT) and incidence of CVE in a large cohort of individuals at high risk of CVE, the IMPROVE, a prospective multicenter European study. Methods: 3711 subjects (54-79 years) with at least three established cardiovascular risk factors were enrolled. Baseline serum levels of IgM anti-PC were measured by ELISA. Carotid ultrasound investigations were performed at baseline and after 15 and 30 months of follow-up. The risk of C-IMT progression and ischemic CVE associated with low anti-PC levels was tested by logistic regression and Cox regression analysis, respectively. Risk estimates were adjusted by center and conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Results: 3670 study participants were included in the present analysis and 213 CVE were recorded during a 3 year follow up. Anti-PC levels (U/ml) were classified into quartiles [. Q1≤ 40, Q2 >40-≤64, Q3 >64-≤102, Q4 >102]. In men, low levels of anti-PC (Q1) were associated with the highest (>90th) percentile of the fastest C-IMT progression, i.e. the segment showing the fastest progression over 30 months in the whole carotid tree, with an OR of 1.41 (95%CI, 1.02-1.9) and with an increased risk of CVE with a multivariable adjusted HR of 1.85 (95%CI, 1.1-3.1). No significant associations were found in women. Conclusions: Low anti-PC levels increase the risk of CVE in men. This effect may be partly mediated by a fast C-IMT progression. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Beira&tild;o da Veiga L.,Universita` Of Milan |
Cho D.,Dongguk University |
Pavarino L.F.,Universita` Of Milan |
Scacchi S.,Universita` Of Milan
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2014
Isogeometric collocation methods are very recent and promising numerical schemes that preserve the advantages of isogeometric analysis but often exhibit better performances than their Galerkin counterparts. In the present paper, an additive overlapping Schwarz method for isogeometric collocation discretizations is introduced and studied. The resulting preconditioner, accelerated by GMRES, is shown to be scalable with respect to the number of subdomains and very robust with respect to the isogeometric discretization parameters such as the mesh size and polynomial degree, as well as with respect to the presence of discontinuous elliptic coefficients and domain deformations. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Petti F.M.,MUSE Museo delle Science di Trento |
Bernardi M.,MUSE Museo delle Science di Trento |
Bernardi M.,University of Bristol |
Ashley-Ross M.A.,Wake forest University |
And 3 more authors.
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2014
Exceptionally preserved Early Permian tetrapod trackways from the Orobic Basin (Central-Western Southern Alps) offer a unique opportunity to investigate in detail locomotion in fossil vertebrates that lived on continental European landmasses. Herein are reported the results of a study on several tetrapod trackways that display a large variety of behavioral, gait and substrate related extramorphologies. They clearly document the transition from terrestrial-underwater walking to swimming and are assigned to the compound ichnotaxon Batrachichnus C Lunichnium. The use of the "C" symbol is here introduced for the first time as nomenclatural indication of a Compound trace. Producers were probably small-sized temnospondyl or lepospondyl (microsaurs) amphibians. Comparisons with living urodelan anatomy and mechanics provide evidence for conservatism of locomotor mechanics in evolutionary history among amphibians. The derived model for locomotor kinematics in Early Permian amphibians provides a reference for interpreting transitional land-to-water trackways. The shift from walking to swimming behavior in early tetrapods, as in extant urodelan amphibians, is described as a complex balance between different dynamics. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.