Leo L.S.,University of Notre Dame |
Fernando H.J.S.,University of Notre Dame |
Di Sabatino S.,University of Notre Dame |
Di Sabatino S.,Universita Del Salento
Environmental Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2015
A simple conceptual model is presented to describe the near-surface flow of a long, partially urbanized valley of slope (Formula presented.) located normal to a coastline, considering forcing due to differential surface temperatures between the sea, undeveloped (rural) land and urban area. Accordingly, under weak synoptic conditions and when the coastal and urban (thermally induced pressure-gradient) forcing are in phase with that of the valley thermal circulation, the mean flow velocity (Formula presented.) is parameterized by the cumulative effects of multiple forcing: (Formula presented.). This accounts for the coastal/urban forcing due to surface-air buoyancy difference (Formula presented.) over a distance (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.) the convective velocity. Comparisons with data of the Meteo-diffusion field experiment conducted in a coastal semi-urbanized valley of Italy (Biferno Valley) reveal that the inferences of the model are consistent with observed valley flow velocities as well as sharp morning and prolonged evening transitions. While the experimental dataset is limited, the agreement with observations suggests that the model captures essential dynamics of valley circulation subjected to multiple forcing. Further observations are necessary to investigate the general efficacy of the model. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Spatafora G.,Polytechnic of Milan |
Gervaso F.,Universita Del Salento |
Boschetti F.,Polytechnic of Milan |
Boschetti F.,IRCCS Instituto Ortopedico Galeazzi
Advances and Trends in Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, SEMC 2010 | Year: 2010
Articular cartilage is characterized by a very low permeability which is responsible of the support and distribution of loads in diarthrodial joints and of the transport of nutrients to chondrocytes. The permeability of articular cartilage varies through the depth of the tissue, and, due to the compaction of the solid matrix under compressive loads, decreases for increasing deformation. The study of the permeability is very useful to understand the onset and progression of osteoarthritis and to regenerate cartilage by tissue engineering. Permeation studies in vitro are conceptually easy but practically difficult to be performed. We performed numerical simulations, based on the poroelasticity theory, of permeation tests varying the method used for positioning the sample into the test chamber (ideal, glued sample and o-ring on top). For each design we evaluated the local strain distribution which is essential to a precise calculation of the permeability from experimental tests. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, London.
Cesari D.,CNR Institute of atmospheric Sciences and Climate |
Genga A.,Universita` del Salento |
Ielpo P.,CNR Institute of atmospheric Sciences and Climate |
Ielpo P.,CNR Water Research Institute |
And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014
Harbours are important for economic and social development of coastal areas but they also represent an anthropogenic source of emissions often located near urban centres and industrial areas. This increases the difficulties in distinguishing the harbour contribution with respect to other sources. The aim of this work is the characterisation of main sources of PM2.5 acting on the Brindisi harbour-industrial area, trying to pinpoint the contribution of in-port ship emissions to primary and secondary PM2.5. Brindisi is an important port-city of the Adriatic Sea considered a hot-spot for anthropogenic environmental pressures at National level. Measurements were performed collecting PM2.5 samples and characterising the concentrations of 23 chemical species (water soluble organic and inorganic carbon; major ions: SO4 2-, NO3 -, NH4 +, Cl-, C2O4 2-, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+; and elements: Ni, Cu, V, Mn, As, Pb, Cr, Sb, Fe, Al, Zn, and Ti). These species represent, on average, 51.4% of PM2.5 and were used for source apportionment via PMF. The contributions of eight sources were estimated: crustal (16.4±0.9% of PM2.5), aged marine (2.6±0.5%), crustal carbonates (7.7±0.3%), ammonium sulphate (27.3±0.8%), biomass burning-fires (11.7±0.7%), traffic (16.4±1.7 %), industrial (0.4±0.3%) and a mixed source oil combustion-industrial including ship emissions in harbour (15.3±1.3%). The PMF did not separate the in-port ship emission contribution from industrial releases. The correlation of estimated contribution with meteorology showed directionality with an increase of oil combustion and sulphate contribution in the harbour direction with respect to the direction of the urban area and an increase of the V/Ni ratio. This allowed for the use of V as marker of primary ship contribution to PM2.5 (2.8%+/-1.1%). The secondary contribution of oil combustion to non-sea-salt-sulphate, nssSO4 2-, was estimated to be 1.3μg/m3 (about 40% of total nssSO4 2- or 11% of PM2.5). © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Lezzi M.,Universita` del Salento |
Cinar M.E.,Ege University |
Giangrande A.,Universita` del Salento
Marine Biodiversity | Year: 2015
During several surveys conducted along the Ionian coast of Italy, specimens belonging to two species of the genera Monticellina and Protocirrineris were collected and described as new species in the present study. Protocirrineris purgamentorum sp. nov., collected from hard bottom near a sewage outfall, is mainly characterized by having branchiae commencing from the anteriormost tentacle-bearing chaetiger. Monticellina marypetersenae sp. nov., found in muddy sediments of the Gulf of Taranto, is unique among its congeners by having the first pair of branchiae arising anteriorly from the dorsal tentacles, notopodia with only capillaries, and four peristomial rings. © 2015 Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Perrone M.R.,Universita Del Salento |
Burlizzi P.,Universita Del Salento
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2016
Backscatter lidar measurements at 355, 532, and 1064 nm combined with aerosol optical thicknesses (AOTs) from sun photometer measurements collocated in space and time were used to retrieve the vertical profiles of intensive and extensive aerosol parameters. Then, the vertical profiles of the Ångström coefficients for different wavelength pairs (Å(λ1, λ2, z)), the color ratio (CR(z)), the fine mode fraction (η(z)) at 532 nm, and the fine modal radius (Rf(z)), which represent aerosol characteristic properties independent from the aerosol load, were used for typing the aerosol over the Central Mediterranean. The ability of the Ångström coefficients to identify the main aerosol types affecting the Central Mediterranean with the support of the backward trajectory analysis was first demonstrated. Three main aerosol types, which were designed as continental-polluted (CP), marine-polluted (MP), and desert-polluted (DP), were identified. We found that both the variability range and the vertical profile structure of the tested aerosol intensive parameters varied with the aerosol type. The variability range and the altitude dependence of the aerosol extinction coefficients at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, respectively, also varied with the identified aerosol types even if they are extensive aerosol parameters. DP, MP, and CP aerosols were characterized by the Å(532, 1064 nm) mean values ± 1 standard deviation equal to 0.5 ± 0.2, 1.1 ± 0.2, 1.6 ± 0.2, respectively. η(%) mean values ± 1SD were equal to 50 ± 10, 73 ± 7, and 86 ± 6 for DP, MP, and CP aerosols, respectively. The Rf and CR mean values ± 1SD were equal to 0.16 ± 0.05 μm and 1.3 ± 0.3, respectively, for DP aerosols; to 0.12 ± 0.03 μm and 1.8 ± 0.4, respectively, for MP aerosols; and to 0.11 ± 0.02 μm and 1.7 ± 0.4, respectively, for CP aerosols. CP and DP aerosols were on average responsible for greater AOT and LR values, but the LR and AOT dependence on wavelength was stronger for CP than for DP aerosols. The plots of the lidar ratio values at 355 nm versus the mean columnar values of the 532–1064 nm Ångström coefficient (Åc), the fine mode radius, the fine mode fraction at 532 nm (ηc), and the color ratio, respectively, furthermore revealed the greater ability of the Åc and ηc values to characterize different aerosol types. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Bisconti C.,Universita Del Salento |
Corallo A.,Universita Del Salento |
Fortunato L.,Universita Del Salento |
Gentile A.A.,Universita Del Salento
International Journal of Theoretical Physics | Year: 2014
This work aims to develop a novel BDI agent programming framework, which embeds the reasoning under uncertainty (probabilistic logic) and is capable of a realistic simulation of human reasoning. We claim that such a development can be addressed through the adoption of the mathematical and logical formalism derived from Quantum Mechanics: a scheme fulfilling the necessary requirements is described, useful for both the interpretation of some peculiarities in human behavior, and eventually the adoption of ‘quantum computing’ formalism for the agent programming. This last possibility could exploit the power of quantum parallelism in practical reasoning applications. Integration with the BDI paradigm enables the straightforward adoption of efficient learning algorithms and procedures, enhancing the behavior and adaptation of the agent to the environment. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.