Universidadautonoma Of Madrid

Madrid, Spain

Universidadautonoma Of Madrid

Madrid, Spain
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Sanchez-Mata D.,Complutense University of Madrid | De La Fuente V.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Rufo L.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Rodriguez N.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Amils R.,Universidadautonoma Of Madrid
Lazaroa | Year: 2013

Sánchez-Mata, D., de la Fuente, V., Rufo, L., Rodríguez, N. & Amils, R. Streptanthus purpureus spec. nova (Cruciferae), an endemic nickel hyperaccumulator from Sierra Nevada (California, USA). Lazaroa 34: 275-283 (2013). The genus Streptanthus Nutt. (Cruciferae) is one of the most important indicators of ultramafic floras in Western North America. This genus contains taxa that are endemic or tolerant of ultramafic soils. One of these taxa, Streptanthus polygaloides sensu lato (s.l.) are annual nickel hyperaccumulators strictly confined to ultramafic soils throughout the Californian Sierra Nevada foothills. Some clarifications are discussed regarding the taxonomy and ecology of this complex, leading to the recognition of a new taxon: Streptanthus purpureus sp. nova. © 2013. Universidad Complutense de Madrid.

Sander J.,Texas A&M University | Ahmed Z.,California Institute of Technology | Anderson A.J.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Arrenberg S.,University of Zrich | And 82 more authors.
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013

Matter, as we know it, makes up less than 5% of the Universe. Various astrophysical observations have confirmed that one quarter of the Universe and most of the matter content in the Universe is made up of Dark Matter. The nature of Dark Matter is yet to be discovered and is one of the biggest questions in Physics. Particle Physics combined with astrophysical measurements of the abundance gives rise to a Dark Matter candidate called Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP). The low density of WIMPs in the galaxies and the extremely weak nature of the interaction with ordinary matter make detection of the WIMP an extraordinarily challenging task, with abundant fakes from various radioactive and cosmogenic backgrounds with much stronger electromagnetic interaction. The extremely weak nature of the WIMP interaction dictates detectors that have extremely low naturally occurring radioactive background, a large active volume (mass) of sensitive detector material to maximize statistics, a highly efficient detector based rejection mechanism for the dominant electromagnetic background and sophisticated analysis techniques to reject any residual background. This paper describes the status of the SuperCDMS experiment. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

Rossi E.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Sanz-Rodriguez F.,Universidadautonoma Of Madrid | Eleno N.,University of Salamanca | Duwell A.,University of Salamanca | And 6 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2013

Human endoglin is an RGD-containing transmembrane glycoprotein identified in vascular endothelial cells. Although endoglin is essential for angiogenesis and its expression is up-regulated in inflammation and at sites of leukocyte extravasation, its role in leukocyte trafficking is unknown. This function was tested in endoglin heterozygous mice (Eng+/-) and their wild-type siblings Eng+/+ treated with carrageenan or LPS as inflammatory agents. Both stimuli showed that inflammation-induced leukocyte transendothelial migration to peritoneum or lungs was significantly lower in Eng+/- than in Eng+/+ mice. Leukocyte transmigration through cell monolayers of endoglin transfectants was clearly enhanced in the presence of endoglin. Coating transwells with the RGD-containing extracellular domain of endoglin, enhanced leukocyte transmigration, and this increased motility was inhibited by soluble endoglin. Leukocytes stimulated with CXCL12, a chemokine involved in inflammation, strongly adhered to endoglincoated plates and to endoglin-expressing endothelial cells. This endoglin-dependent adhesion was abolished by soluble endoglin, RGD peptides, the anti-integrin α5β1 inhibitory antibody LIA1/2 and the chemokine receptor inhibitor AMD3100. These results demonstrate for the first time that endothelial endoglin interacts with leukocyte integrin α5β1 via its RGD motif, and this adhesion process is stimulated by the inflammatory chemokine CXCL12, suggesting a regulatory role for endoglin in transendothelial leukocyte trafficking. © 2013 by The American Society of Hematology.

Todorovic M.,Universidadautonoma Of Madrid | Bowler D.R.,Japan International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics | Bowler D.R.,University College London | Gillan M.J.,University College London | Miyazaki T.,Japan National Institute of Materials Science
Journal of the Royal Society Interface | Year: 2013

Understanding the mechanisms underlying ion channel function from the atomic-scale requires accurate ab initiomodelling as well as careful experiments. Here,we present a density functional theory (DFT) study of the ion channel gramicidinA( gA),whose inner pore conducts onlymonovalent cations andwhose conductance has been shown to depend on the side chains of the amino acids in the channel.We investigate the ground state geometry and electronic properties of the channel in vacuum, focusing on their dependence on the side chains of the amino acids. We find that the side chains affect the ground state geometry, while the electrostatic potential of the pore is independent of the side chains. This study is also in preparation for a full, linear scaling DFT study of gA in a lipid bilayer with surrounding water. We demonstrate that linear scaling DFT methods can accurately model the system with reasonable computational cost. Linear scaling DFT allows ab initio calculations with 10 000-100 000 atoms and beyond, and will be an important new tool for biomolecular simulations. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

El Assar M.,Hospital Universitario Of Getafe | Angulo J.,Hospital Universitario Of Getafe | Angulo J.,Instituto Ramon Y Cajal Of Investigacion Sanitaria | Vallejo S.,Universidadautonoma Of Madrid | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2012

Vascular aging is a key process determining health status of aged population. Aging is an independent cardiovascular risk factor associated to an impairment of endothelial function, which is a very early and important event leading to cardiovascular disease. Vascular aging, formerly being considered an immutable and inexorable risk factor, is now viewed as a target process for intervention in order to achieve a healthier old age. A further knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the age-related vascular dysfunction is required to design an adequate therapeutic strategy to prevent or restore this impairment of vascular functionality. Among the proposed mechanisms that contribute to age-dependent endothelial dysfunction, this review is focused on the following aspects occurring into the vascular wall: (1) the reduction of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, caused by diminished NO synthesis and/or by augmented NO scavenging due to oxidative stress, leading to peroxynitrite formation (ONOO -); (2) the possible sources involved in the enhancement of oxidative stress; (3) the increased activity of vasoconstrictor factors; and (4) the development of a low-grade pro-inflammatory environment. Synergisms and interactions between all these pathways are also analyzed. Finally, a brief summary of some cellular mechanisms related to endothelial cell senescence (including telomere and telomerase, stress-induced senescence, as well as sirtuins) are implemented, as they are likely involved in the age-dependent endothelial dysfunction, as well as in the lower vascular repairing capacity observed in the elderly. Prevention or reversion of those mechanisms leading to endothelial dysfunction through life style modifications or pharmacological interventions could markedly improve cardiovascular health in older people. © 2012 El Assar, Angulo, Vallejo, Peiró, Sánchez-Ferrer and Rodríguez-Mañas.

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