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Kocalevent R.-D.,University of Hamburg | Klapp B.F.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Albani C.,University of Leipzig | Brahler E.,Universal Medical Center Mainz
BMC Public Health | Year: 2014

Background: The population-based study examined postulated effects, derived from a resources-demands-model about gender-related aspects of self-efficacy, optimism, chronic stress, and exhaustion. Methods: Data acquisition was carried out by a market research institute with a multi-topic questionnaire in the general population (N = 2,552). Instruments administered were the Questionnaire for Self-Efficacy and Optimism, the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress, and the Chalder-Fatigue-Scale. Households and target persons were selected randomly. The analyses focused on structural equation modeling. Results: There were significant differences in structural relations among the resource paths. In particular, significant gender differences were found with respect to self-efficacy, and among the exhaustion paths, namely in the mental dimension of exhaustion. The observed measures of chronic stress were found to be operating equivalently for both genders. Results suggest that resources play an important role in the understanding of how chronic stress is preceded and may lead to exhaustion in both genders. Conclusion: Personal resources seem to be more expressed by men than by woman, for whom the relation of resources to health is of greater importance than for men. © 2014 Kocalevent et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Richter F.,Jena University Hospital | Strauss B.,Jena University Hospital | Braehler E.,University of Leipzig | Braehler E.,Universal Medical Center Mainz | And 2 more authors.
Eating Behaviors | Year: 2016

Purpose: Disordered eating is common for all ages and sexes in the general population. However, only some individuals are known to develop clinically relevant eating disorders. There is a critical need of efficient, reliable and valid screening instruments to measure disordered eating for the general population. The Eating Attitudes Test was shortened into an 8-item-version to screen individuals at high risk of developing clinical eating disorders in a general population sample. Methods: Psychometric properties (Cronbach's α, construct and concurrent validity and factor structure), cutoff scores (with sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value) and norms were determined in a representative sample of the German population (N = 2527). Factorial validity was investigated using item response modeling. Results: Results confirmed reliability and validity of the questionnaire. Internal consistency and convergent validity were good. Analysis revealed different cutoff points for male and female participants. Values for sensitivity and specificity were satisfying and the positive predictive value was higher compared to other short screening instruments for disordered eating. Factorial analysis revealed a one-factor solution with an excellent model fit. The elimination of one item was discussed. Gender- and age-specific norms are reported. Conclusions: Overall results indicated that the EAT-8 is an efficient instrument suitable for screening purposes in large general population samples. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Richter F.,Jena University Hospital | Strauss B.,Jena University Hospital | Braehler E.,University of Leipzig | Braehler E.,Universal Medical Center Mainz | And 2 more authors.
Eating Behaviors | Year: 2016

The prevention of eating disorders and the identification of high-risk individuals are essential for the public health sector. There is need for sensitive and specific screening instruments of disordered eating that can be applied in universal samples as an initial step into disease prevention. The SCOFF is a screening instrument for disordered eating, frequently used in international and cross-cultural contexts to detect individuals at risk. The objective of this research is to evaluate whether the SCOFF can be used as a screening tool for disordered eating in universal samples. This is the first study which examined the psychometric properties of the German version of the SCOFF in a general population sample. A representative sample (N = 2527) of the German population, aged 14-95. years, was recruited. Psychometric properties were determined including reliability, concurrent and construct validity, and factor structure. The prevalence of disordered eating was assessed. The prevalence of disordered eating in the general population was 10%. Using the established cutoff point of ≥. 2, values for diagnostic accuracy were 26% (sensitivity), 97% (specificity), 80% (positive predictive value), and 74% (negative predictive value). Factorial analyses revealed an excellent model fit of a unidimensional model. Due to its low sensitivity and a high percentage of false negatives, there are limitations in using the German version of the SCOFF in general population samples with wide age ranges. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Korner A.,McGill University | Korner A.,Segal Cancer Center | Coroiu A.,McGill University | Copeland L.,McGill University | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b), has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404). The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the "self-coldness", composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a "self-compassion composite", the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between "self-coldness" and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression-providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself. Copyright: © 2015 Körner et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Gotze H.,University of Leipzig | Brahler E.,University of Leipzig | Brahler E.,Universal Medical Center Mainz | Gansera L.,University of Leipzig | And 2 more authors.
Supportive Care in Cancer | Year: 2014

Purpose Palliative patients and their family caregivers were interviewed at the beginning of home care in personal interviews at home in regard to their psychological distress as well as their quality of life. Methods Quality of life was collected with the palliative module EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL (patients) and the Short Form-8 Health Survey (caregivers). The psychological distress was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the extent of social support with the Oslo 3-items social support scale. Two multiple regression models were employed to examine factors associated with psychological distress. Data from 106 palliative patients (39.6% female) and their family caregivers (67.9% female) were included in the analysis. Results Every fourth patient had clinically relevant anxiety levels and half of the palliative patients had clinically symptomatic depression scores. The main symptoms of the patients were: fatigue, loss of appetite, pain, and shortness of breath. Patients’ and caregivers’ anxiety and depression scores were significantly correlated (anxiety r=0.386, depression r= 0.416). Thirty-three percent of caregivers suffered from high anxiety and 28% from depression. Spousal caregivers had higher psychological distress than other caregivers. Other relevant factors for higher distress were high financial burden and low social support. There was hardly any family member receiving professional psychological support. Conclusions In palliative patients, depressive symptoms should not be judged as a normal attendant of the terminal illness situation. Instead, patients should be referred to appropriate support services for pharmacological or psychological treatment. Spousal caregivers and caregivers who are socially not well integrated are in particular need of support. Attention to the financial burden of family caregivers is also very important. Due to the existing correlation between the psychological situation of palliative patients and their caring relatives, couples must be considered an emotional system rather than just two individuals. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

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