Unity College is a Lutheran school in Murray Bridge, South Australia. Unity teaches students from reception to year 12. There are 970 students currently enrolled at Unity College. The current principal is Ilene Theil who replaced Neville Grieger as Principal in Mid-2007. Wikipedia.
Avalos G.,University of San José |
Mulkey S.S.,Unity College
American journal of botany | Year: 2014
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Few studies have analyzed the physiological performance of different life stages and the expression of ontogenetic niche shifts in lianas. Here, we analyzed the photosynthetic and morphological acclimation of seedlings of Stigmaphyllon lindenianum, Combretum fruticosum, and Bonamia trichantha to distinctive light conditions in a tropical dry forest and compared their response with the acclimation response of adult canopy lianas of the same species. We expected acclimation to occur faster through changes in leaf photochemistry relative to adaptation in morphology, consistent with the life history strategies of these lianas.•METHODS: Seedlings were assigned to the following light treatments: high light (HH), low light (LL), sun to shade (HL), and shade to sun (LH) in a common garden. After 40 d, HL and LH seedlings were exposed to opposite light treatments. Light response curves, the maximum photosynthetic rate in the field (Amax), and biomass allocation were monitored for another 40 d on leaves expanded before transfer.•KEY RESULTS: Photosynthetic responses, Amax, and biomass of Stigmaphyllon and Combretum varied with light availability. Physiological characters were affected by current light environment. The previous light environment (carryover effects) only influenced Amax. Morphological characters showed significant carryover effects. Stigmaphyllon showed high morphological and physiological plasticity. Sun-exposed seedlings of this liana increased stem biomass and switched from self-supporting to climbing forms.•CONCLUSIONS: Acclimation in seedlings of these lianas is consistent with the response of adult lianas in the canopy in direction, but not in magnitude. There was no evidence for ontogenetic niche shifts in the acclimation response. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.
Spartz J.T.,Unity College |
Rickenbach M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Shaw B.R.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2015
While much research has focused on landowner perspectives for producing biomass to supply potential future bioenergy demands, there has been relatively little research on regional public opinion and perceptions of land use change associated with bioenergy production. This project investigates perceptions of potential bioenergy land use among the general public by using a natural experiment employing narrative frames of agriculture and forestry. Results show differences in public perceptions given these two narrative land use frames. Relatively high levels of uncertainty were found across both frames, especially related to perceptions of future impacts on local energy prices in the forestry frame. Understanding how land use frames can influence perceptions about bioenergy system development can help facilitate more effective communication while addressing potential uncertainties when moderating or participating in stakeholder group deliberation regarding bioenergy and related land use change. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Jezorek H.,University of South Florida |
Baker A.J.,Unity College |
Stiling P.,University of South Florida
Biological Invasions | Year: 2012
Cactoblastis cactorum is known for being both a biological control agent and an invasive pest of opuntioid cacti. The spread of C. cactorum in the southeastern United States may threaten the biological and physical integrity of desert, scrub, and coastal habitats. However, the effects of invasive species are known to vary spatially and temporally, and C. cactorum's efficacy as a biological control agent varies considerably from region to region. Therefore, the long term effects of C. cactorum within its U. S. range are still uncertain. Marked Opuntia stricta (n = 253) and O. humifusa (n = 327) plants along the west coast of Florida were censused for 6 years to determine the effects of C. cactorum attack on survival and growth rate of plants, and to examine host species differences and the effects of plant size. 78.1 % of the Opuntia plants were attacked by C. cactorum during the 6 year study and the overall survival rate was 75.8 %. Plants attacked by C. cactorum were more likely to die than unattacked plants and a plant's odds of surviving the 6 year period decreased as C. cactorum attack frequency increased. However, plants that survived the 6 year period showed, on average, positive growth and there was no significant difference in growth rates between surviving attacked and unattacked plants. O. stricta plants were more likely to be attacked at least once, were attacked more frequently, and were more likely to die after being attacked than were O. humifusa plants. Plant size did not predict plant survival, but larger surviving plants lost proportionally more pads over the 6 years than smaller surviving plants. Although C. cactorum should still be considered a threat, particularly for rare opuntioids, overall survival along the west central Florida coast is currently high and plants that are able to survive C. cactorum attack are not being reduced in size, possibly because they possess traits that render them more tolerant of C. cactorum damage. Our findings suggest that an assumption of severe negative effects of an invasive species, based on its effects in other regions or over short periods of time, may not always be justified. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Miller W.R.,Baker University |
Perry E.S.,Unity College
Zootaxa | Year: 2016
The Western Hemisphere or the New World, also known as the Americas (North, Central and South America, associated islands and included seas) have historically been divided into two Realms, the Nearctic and Neotropical based on terrestrial biogeography. The coasts of these two terrestrial realms are bordered by six marine realms, 14 marine provinces and 67 marine ecoregions. From current literature, a comprehensive list of the marine tardigrade fauna from the Americas is presented. Data on marine tardigrades were obtained from 385 published Records of the Occurrence (RoO) of a species, their location, tidal zone, and the substrates from which they were reported. Authors identifications were accepted at face value unless subsequently amended. Thirty genera and 82 species or subspecies are reported from the Americas; 49 species are documented from margins of the terrestrial Nearctic realm (North America) and 48 from terrestrial Neotropical realm (South America) with only 17 species occurring in both. We define cosmopolitan distribution for marine tardigrades as occurring in or on the margins of five of the seven oceans, only two species of marine tardigrade meets this standard. From the Americas 39 species have been described as new to science, 32 species appear restricted to the hemisphere. Taxa were assigned to marine ecoregions based on adjacent geopolitical units (country, states, provinces, etc.) described in published records. Although tardigrades have been reported from all six marine realms, they are only known from 21 of the 67 ecoregions. Most marine tardigrade sampling in the Americas has focused on near shore substrate (sand, mud, barnacles); for some species no substrates have been reported. The west coasts of both continents have little or no data about tardigrade presence. © 2016 Magnolia Press.
Remsburg A.,Unity College
Diversity | Year: 2011
Many aquatic species have discrete life stages, making it important to understand relative influences of the different habitats occupied within those populations. Although population demographics in one stage can carry over to spatially separated life stages, most studies of habitat associations have been restricted to a single life stage. Among Gomphidae dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera), recruitment via adult oviposition establishes initial population sizes of the aquatic larvae. However, spatial variability in larval survivorship could obscure the relationship between adult and larval densities. This study uses surveys conducted during 2005 and 2006 of Gomphidae larval, emergence, and adult stages from 22 lake sites in northern Wisconsin, USA, to investigate (1) whether the Gomphidae density of each life stage correlated spatially with that of the preceding life stage and (2) what habitat factors help explain variation in densities at each life stage. Results indicated that adult densities from the previous season helped predict densities of early-instar larvae. This finding suggests that oviposition site selection controlled the local larval distribution more than larval survivorship or movement. Late-instar larval densities helped predict densities of emerging Gomphidae later the same season, suggesting that variation in survivorship of final-instar larvae among sites is small relative to the variation in larval recruitment. This study demonstrates that locations with higher densities of odonates in the water also have higher densities of odonates on land. In addition to the densities of Gomphidae in previous life stages, water clarity helped predict larval densities, and riparian wetland vegetation helped predict emergent dragonfly densities. © 2011 by the authors.
Dillaway D.N.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Dillaway D.N.,Unity College |
Kruger E.L.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Global Change Biology | Year: 2014
Factors constraining the geographic ranges of broadleaf tree species in eastern North America were examined in common gardens along a ~1500 km latitudinal transect travers in grange boundaries of four target species: trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) to the north vs. eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) and sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) to the south. In 2006 and 2007, carbon-use efficiency (CUE), the proportion of assimilated carbon retained in biomass, was estimated for seedlings of the four species as the quotient of relative growth rate (RGR) and photosynthesis per unit tree mass (Atree). In aspen and birch, CUE and RGR declined significantly with increasing growth temperature, which spanned 9 °C across gardens and years. The 37% (relative) CUE decrease from coolest to warmest garden correlated with increases in leaf nighttime respiration (Rleaf) and the ratio of Rleaf to leaf photosynthesis (R%A). For cottonwood and sweet gum, however, similar increases in Rleaf and R%A accompanied modest CUE declines, implying that processes other than Rleaf were responsible for species differences in CUE's temperature response. Our findings illustrate marked taxonomic variation, at least among young trees, in the thermal sensitivity of CUE, and point to potentially negative consequences of climate warming for the carbon balance, competitive ability, and persistence of two foundation species in northern temperate and boreal forests. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Caudill D.,Utah State University |
Caudill D.,Florida Fish And Wildlife Conservation Commission |
Messmer T.A.,Utah State University |
Bibles B.,Unity College |
Guttery M.R.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Journal of Wildlife Management | Year: 2014
Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse) adult hen and juvenile survival have been shown to have significant influence on population growth rates. However, assessing the sensitivity of population growth rates to variability in juvenile survival has proven difficult because of limited information concerning the potentially important demographic rate. Sage-grouse survival rates are commonly assessed using necklace-type radio transmitters. Recent technological advances have lead to increased interest in the deployment of dorsally mounted global positioning system (GPS) transmitters for studying sage-grouse ecology. However, the use of dorsally mounted transmitters has not been thoroughly evaluated for sage-grouse, leading to concern that birds fitted with these transmitters may experience differential mortality rates. We evaluated the effect of transmitter positioning (dorsal vs. necklace) on juvenile sage-grouse survival using a controlled experimental design with necklace-style and suture-backpack very high frequency (VHF) transmitters. To evaluate the effects of temporal variation, sex, and transmitter type on juvenile sage-grouse survival, we monitored 91 juveniles captured in south-central Utah from 2008 to 2010. We instrumented 19 females with backpacks, 14 males with backpacks, 39 females with necklaces, and 19 males with necklaces. We used Program MARK to analyze juvenile survival data. Although effects were only marginally significant from a statistical perspective, sex (P=0.103) and transmitter type (P=0.09) were deemed to have biologically meaningful impacts on survival. Dorsally mounted transmitters appeared to negatively affected daily survival (βtransmitter type=-0.55, SE=0.32). Temporal variation in juvenile sage-grouse daily survival was best described by a quadratic trend in time, where daily survival was lowest in late September and was high overwinter. An interaction between the quadratic trend in time and year resulted in the low point of daily survival shifting within the season between years (27 vs. 17 Sep for 2008 and 2009, respectively). Overall (15 Aug-31 Mar) derived survival ranged 0.42-0.62 for females and 0.23-0.44 for males. For all years pooled, the probability death was due to predation was 0.73, reported harvest was 0.16, unreported harvest was 0.09, and other undetermined factors was 0.02. We observed 0% and 6.8% crippling loss (from hunting) in 2008 and 2009, respectively. We recommend the adoption of harvest management strategies that attempt to shift harvest away from juveniles and incorporate crippling rates. In addition, future survival studies on juvenile sage-grouse should use caution if implementing dorsally mounted transmitters because of the potential for experimental bias. © 2014 The Wildlife Society.
Vincent S.,National Council for Science and the Environment |
Mulkey S.,Unity College
Environment, Development and Sustainability | Year: 2015
Interdisciplinary environmental and sustainability (IES) academic programs have an important and distinctive role in education for sustainability: preparing sustainability-oriented problem solvers who work at the science–policy, science–management, and policy–management interfaces. IES programs are rapidly expanding at college and universities in the USA and exhibit a variety of forms, including interdisciplinary degree programs housed within a traditional department; programs that span departments, a college, multiple colleges, or the entire university; programs that reside in their own IES departments, schools, or colleges; and degree programs located within IES institutes and centers. A very few institutions are addressing IES education in a holistic manner by developing dedicated campuses for sustainability education or reorganizing their entire campus structure to support sustainability science education and research. This paper presents how Unity College, a small environmental college, reorganized its administrative structure, curriculum and pedagogy around a sustainability science framework. It also illustrates the influence that various forms of IES programs have on sustainability education in the USA as revealed by national studies conducted by the Center for Environmental Education Research of the National Council for Science and the Environment. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Unity College | Date: 2014-09-24
Apparel namely t-shirts, sweatshirts, jackets, shorts, sweatpants and hats. Educational services, namely, providing courses of instruction and training at the college and post graduate levels.
News Article | December 27, 2016
UNITY, Maine, Dec. 27, 2016 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- On the anniversary of its historic decision to become the first U.S. college to divest from fossil fuels, Unity College is redoubling its efforts to create a net zero campus and spread sustainability broadly throughout society....