Warfield K.L.,Integrated Biotherapeutics, Inc. |
Warfield K.L.,Unither Virology LLC |
Dye J.M.,U.S. Army |
Wells J.B.,U.S. Army |
And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015
Filoviruses cause hemorrhagic fever resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Several vaccine platforms that include multiple virus-vectored approaches and viruslike particles (VLPs) have shown efficacy in nonhuman primates. Previous studies have shown protection of cynomolgus macaques against homologous infection for Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) following a three-dose vaccine regimen of EBOV or MARV VLPs, as well as heterologous protection against Ravn Virus (RAVV) following vaccination with MARV VLPs. The objectives of the current studies were to determine the minimum number of vaccine doses required for protection (using EBOV as the test system) and then demonstrate protection against Sudan virus (SUDV) and Taï Forest virus (TAFV). Using the EBOV nonhuman primate model, we show that one or two doses of VLP vaccine can confer protection from lethal infection. VLPs containing the SUDV glycoprotein, nucleoprotein and VP40 matrix protein provide complete protection against lethal SUDV infection in macaques. Finally, we demonstrate protective efficacy mediated by EBOV, but not SUDV, VLPs against TAFV; this is the first demonstration of complete cross-filovirus protection using a single component heterologous vaccine within the Ebolavirus genus. Along with our previous results, this observation provides strong evidence that it will be possible to develop and administer a broad-spectrum VLP-based vaccine that will protect against multiple filoviruses by combining only three EBOV, SUDV and MARV components.
Carocci M.,Harvard University |
Hinshaw S.M.,Harvard University |
Rodgers M.A.,Harvard University |
Rodgers M.A.,Abbott Laboratories |
And 10 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2015
Dengue virus (DENV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, is a mosquito-borne pathogen and the cause of dengue fever. The increasing prevalence of DENV worldwide heightens the need for an effective vaccine and specific antivirals. Due to the dependence of DENV upon the lipid biosynthetic machinery of the host cell, lipid signaling and metabolism present unique opportunities for inhibiting viral replication. We screened a library of bioactive lipids and modulators of lipid metabolism and identified 4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide (4-HPR) (fenretinide) as an inhibitor of DENV in cell culture. 4-HPR inhibits the steady-state accumulation of viral genomic RNA and reduces viremia when orally administered in a murine model of DENV infection. The molecular target responsible for this antiviral activity is distinct from other known inhibitors of DENV but appears to affect other members of the Flaviviridae, including the West Nile, Modoc, and hepatitis C viruses. Although long-chain ceramides have been implicated in DENV replication, we demonstrate that DENV is insensitive to the perturbation of long-chain ceramides in mammalian cell culture and that the effect of 4-HPR on dihydroceramide homeostasis is separable from its antiviral activity. Likewise, the induction of reactive oxygen species by 4-HPR is not required for the inhibition of DENV. The inhibition of DENV in vivo by 4-HPR, combined with its well-established safety and tolerability in humans, suggests that it may be repurposed as a pan-Flaviviridae antiviral agent. This work also illustrates the utility of bioactive lipid screens for identifying critical interactions of DENV and other viral pathogens with host lipid biosynthesis, metabolism, and signal transduction. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
University of Oxford and Unither Virology LLC | Date: 2013-06-05
Iminosugar compounds are described that have inbuilt delivery features by virtue of covalent incorporation of a tocopherol moiety, or alternative moieties that are analogues of tocopherol or select analogues of cholesterol, or its antagonist Ezitimibe; and are likely to have broad spectrum antiviral activity. The compounds differ from previous iminosugar compounds, even lipophillic ones, being more hydrophobic and resembling fats and oils in their partition behavior in vivo into lipid phases of lipoproteins, cellular lipid droplet organelles and biological membranes. These features confer a number of unique delivery attributes in vivo, favorable to the therapy of virus infections involving cells of the lymphoid system and the liver, in particular, but these features are also favorable in general for the treatment of virus infections of man and animals.
Unither Virology LLC | Date: 2014-03-14
Provided are iminosugars having antibacterial properties and methods of treating and/or preventing bacterial infections with such iminosugars. The present disclosure relates to antibacterial compounds and, in particular, to iminosugars having antibacterial activity. One embodiment is a method of treating or preventing a bacterial infection comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an antibacterial effective amount of a compound of the following formula: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
Unither Virology LLC and University of Oxford | Date: 2014-04-30
The application provides iminosugars with a high activity and specificity for inhibiting ceramide glucosyltransferase.