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Daphne, AL, United States

The United States Sports Academy is an accredited, sport-specific institution located in Daphne, Alabama. It offers bachelor's, master's and doctoral degree programs as well as certificate programs. Founded in 1972, the Academy has provided its sports programs to more than 60 countries around the world. Wikipedia.

Moon J.R.,United States Sports Academy | Moon J.R.,MusclePharm
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Background/Objectives:The purpose of the current review was to evaluate how body composition can be utilised in athletes, paying particular attention to the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) technique.Subjects/Methods:Various body composition methods are discussed, as well as the unique characteristics of athletes that can lead to large errors when predicting fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM). Basic principles of BIA are discussed, and past uses of the BIA technique in athletes are explored. Single-prediction validation studies and studies tracking changes in FM and FFM are discussed with applications for athletes.Results:Although extensive research in the area of BIA and athletes has been conducted, there remains a large gap in the literature pertaining to a single generalised athlete equation developed using a multiple-compartment model that includes total body water (TBW).Conclusions:Until a generalised athlete-specific BIA equation developed from a multiple-compartment is published, it is recommended that generalised equations such as those published by Lukaski and Bolonchuk and Lohman be used in athletes. However, BIA equations developed for specific athletes may also produce acceptable values and are still acceptable for use until more research is conducted. The use of a valid BIA equation/device should produce values similar to those of hydrostatic weighing and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. However, researchers and practitioners need to understand the individual variability associated with BIA estimations for both single assessments and repeated measurements. Although the BIA method shows promise for estimating body composition in athletes, future research should focus on the development of general athlete-specific equations using a TBW-based three- or four-compartment model. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Stout J.R.,University of Central Florida | Smith-Ryan A.E.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Fukuda D.H.,University of Central Florida | Kendall K.L.,Georgia Southern University | And 5 more authors.
Experimental Gerontology | Year: 2013

Background: Evidence suggests CaHMB may impact muscle mass and/or strength in older adults, yet no long-term studies have compared its effectiveness in sedentary and resistance training conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 24weeks of CaHMB supplementation and resistance training (3dwk-1) or CaHMB supplementation only in ≥65yr old adults. Methods: This double-blinded, placebo-controlled, trial occurred in two phases under ad libitum conditions. Phase I consisted of two non-exercise groups: (a) placebo and (b) 3g CaHMB consumed twice daily. Phase II consisted of two resistance exercise groups: (a) placebo and resistance exercise and (b) 3g CaHMB consumed twice daily and resistance exercise (RE). Strength and functionality were assessed in both phases with isokinetic leg extension and flexion at 60°·s-1 and 180°·s-1 (LE60, LF60, LE180, LF180), hand grip strength (HG) and get-up-and-go (GUG). Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure arm, leg, and total body lean mass (LM) as well as total fat mass (FM). Muscle Quality was measured for arm (MQHG=HG/arm LM) and Leg (MQ60=LE60/leg LM) (MQ180=LE180/leg LM). Results: At 24weeks of Phase I, change in LE60 (+8.8%) and MQ180 (+20.8%) for CaHMB was significantly (p<0.05) greater than that for placebo group. Additionally, only CaHMB showed significant (p<0.05) improvements in total LM (2.2%), leg LM (2.1%), and LE180 (+17.3%), though no treatment effect was observed. Phase II demonstrated that RE significantly improved total LM (4.3%), LE60 (22.8%), LE180 (21.4%), HG (9.8%), and GUG (10.2%) with no difference between treatment groups. At week 24, only CaHMB group significantly improved FM (-3.8%) and MQHG (7.3%); however there was no treatment main effect for these variables. Conclusion: CaHMB improved strength and MQ without RE. Further, RE is an effective intervention for improving all measures of body composition and functionality. © 2013 The Authors.

Brent J.L.,United States Sports Academy | Myer G.D.,Sports Medicine Biodynamics Center | Ford K.R.,High Point University | Paterno M.V.,Sports Medicine Biodynamics Center | Hewett T.E.,Sports Medicine Biodynamics Center
Journal of Sport Rehabilitation | Year: 2013

Context: As high school female athletes demonstrate a rate of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury 3-6 times higher than their male counterparts, research suggests that sagittal-plane hip strength plays a role in factors associated with ACL injuries. Objective: To determine if gender or age affect hip-abductor strength in a functional standing position in young female and male athletes. Design: Prospective cohort design. Setting: Biomechanical laboratory. Participants: Over a 3-y time period, 852 isokinetic hip-abduction evaluations were conducted on 351 (272 female, 79 male) adolescent soccer and basketball players. Intervention: Before testing, athletes were secured in a standing position, facing the dynamometer head, with a strap secured from the uninvolved side and extending around the waist just above the iliac crest. The dynamometer head was positioned in line with the body in the coronal plane by aligning the axis of rotation of the dynamometer with the center of hip rotation. Subjects performed 5 maximum-effort repetitions at a speed of 120°/s. The peak torque was recorded and normalized to body mass. All test trials were conducted by a single tester to limit potential interrater test error. Main Outcome Measure: Standing isokinetic hip-abduction torque. Results: Hip-abduction torque increased in both males and females with age (P <.001) on both the dominant and nondominant sides. A significant interaction of gender and age was observed (P <.001), which indicated that males experienced greater increases in peak torque relative to body weight than did females as they matured. Conclusions: Males exhibit a significant increase in normative hip-abduction strength, while females do not. Future study may determine if the absence of similar increased relative hip-abduction strength in adolescent females, as they age, may be related to their increased risk of ACL injury compared with males. © 2013 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Myer G.D.,Research and The Human Performance Laboratory | Lloyd R.S.,Cardiff Metropolitan University | Brent J.L.,United States Sports Academy | Faigenbaum A.D.,The College of New Jersey
ACSM's Health and Fitness Journal | Year: 2013

To introduce an integrative neuromuscular training model that can be used to enhance the health, fitness, and wellness of all children and adolescents. To understand the potential benefits associated with strength and conditioning programs implemented with youth to reduce injury risk and enhance motor skill development that will support a physically active lifestyle. To comprehend the concept of training age and the implications associated with systematic training beginning during early childhood.

Wade S.M.,Equinox | Wade S.M.,United States Sports Academy | Pope Z.C.,Boise State University | Simonson S.R.,Boise State University
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2014

Training programs for high school athletes have changed over the last 20 years. High school physical education classes have transformed into sport-specific conditioning classes with intensities matching college or professional athlete programming. In addition, involvement in private, sport-specific, training increased; but despite these advanced training methods, are high school athletes prepared for collegiate sport competition? An anonymous survey was sent to 195 Division I strength and conditioning coaches (SCC) to discern incoming college freshman athletes' physical and psychological preparedness for the rigors of collegiate training and sport competition. Fifty-seven (29%) responses were received. Strength and conditioning coaches stated that incoming college freshman athletes lack lower extremity strength, overall flexibility, and core strength as well as proper Olympic lifting technique. Strength and conditioning coaches also stated that athletes lacked the mental toughness to endure collegiate sport training in addition to claiming incoming athletes lacked knowledge of correct nutrition and recovery principles. These results suggest a lack of collegiate training/sport preparedness of high school athletes. High school strength and conditioning specialist's goal is to produce better athletes and doing so requires the strength and conditioning coach/trainer to have knowledge of how to train high school athletes. One way to assure adequate knowledge of strength and conditioning training principles is for high school coaches/trainers to be certified in the field. Strength and conditioning certifications among high school strength and conditioning coaches/trainers would encourage developmentally appropriate training and would provide universities with athletes who are prepared for the rigors of collegiate sport training/competition. © 2014 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

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