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Cabada M.M.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Goodrich M.R.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Graham B.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Villanueva-Meyer P.G.,University of Texas Medical Branch | And 4 more authors.
Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2015

Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections, anemia, and malnutrition among children in the Paucartambo province of Cusco region, Peru, in light of demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiologic contextual factors. Methods. Children from three to twelve years old from six communities in Huancarani district in the highlands of Peru were evaluated for helminth infections, anemia, and nutritional status. Data collected included demographic variables, socioeconomic status, exposures, complete blood counts, and direct and sedimentation stool tests. Results. Of 240 children analyzed, 113 (47%) were infected with one or more parasites. Giardia (27.5%) and Fasciola (9.6%) were the most commonly identified organisms. Eosinophilia was encountered in 21% of the children. Anemia (48.8%) was associated with age (3-4 vs 5-12 years old; odds ratio (OR): 5.86; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.81-12.21). Underweight (10%) was associated with male sex (OR: 5.97; CI: 1.12-31.72), higher eosinophil count (OR: 4.67; CI: 1.31-16.68) and education of the mother (OR: 0.6; CI: 0.4-0.9). Stunting (31.3%) was associated with education of the mother (OR: 0.83; CI: 0.72-0.95); wasting (2.7%) was associated with higher eosinophil count (OR: 2.75; CI: 1.04-7.25). Conclusions. Anemia and malnutrition remain significant problems in the Peruvian highlands. These findings suggest that demographic factors, socio-economic status, and possibly parasitic infections intertwine to cause these health problems. © 2015 Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Source

Houng H.S.H.,U.S. Army | Garner J.,U.S. Air force | Garner J.,Foundation Medicine | Zhou Y.,U.S. Army | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Virology | Year: 2012

Background: During the 2010-2011 influenza season, a small sub-group of 2009 influenza A(H1N1) viruses (hereafter referred to as 2009 A(H1N1)) emerged that was associated with more severe clinical outcomes in Ecuador and North America. Genetically, the haemagglutinin (HA) of this sub-clade was distinct from HAs found in viruses associated with severe outbreaks in 2010 from the United Kingdom and from other global specimens isolated earlier in the season. Objective: We report the emergence of a novel 2009 A(H1N1) variant possessing a re-emergent HA D222N mutation obtained from patients with severe respiratory illnesses and phylogenetically characterise these D222N mutants with other severe disease-causing variants clustering within a common emerging sub-clade. Case reports: In early 2011, three cases of 2009 A(H1N1) infection, two from Quito, Ecuador, and one from Washington, DC, USA, were complicated by severe pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation, resulting in one fatality. These cases were selected due to the reported nature of the acute respiratory distress (ARD) that were captured in Department of Defence (DoD)-sponsored global influenza surveillance nets. Results: Genetically, the 2009 A(H1N1) strains isolated from two of the three severe cases carried a prominent amino acid change at position 222 (D222N) within the primary HA receptor binding site. Furthermore, these cases represent an emerging sub-clade of viruses defined by amino acid changes within HA: N31D, S162N, A186T and V272I. Phylogenetically, these viruses share a high degree of homology with strains associated with recent fatal cases in Chihuahua, Mexico. Discussion: Previously, enhanced virulence associated with the change, D222G, has been clinically linked to severe morbidity and mortality. Initial observations of the prevalence of a novel sub-clade of strains in the Americas suggest that viruses with a re-emergent D222N mutation may too correlate with severe clinical manifestations. These findings warrant heightened vigilance for emerging sub-clades of 2009 A(H1N1) and presumptive clinical implications. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Villanueva-Meyer P.G.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Garcia-Jasso C.A.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Springer C.A.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Lane J.K.,University of Texas Medical Branch | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Travel Medicine | Year: 2015

Background Travelers receive medical advice from a variety of sources, including travel agencies. The aim of this study is to describe the quality of pre-travel advice provided by travel agencies in Cuzco to travelers interested in visiting malaria and yellow fever endemic areas. Methods Trained medical students posed as tourists and visited travel agencies in Cuzco requesting travel advice for a trip to the southern Amazon of Peru, recording advice regarding risk and prevention of malaria and yellow fever. Results A total of 163 registered travel agencies were included in the study. The mean proposed tour duration was 6.8days (±1.4days) with a median time to departure of 3days and a median tour cost of 805US dollars (USD) [interquartile range (IQR) 580-1,095]. Overall, 45% employees failed to mention the risk for any illness. Eighteen percent of the employees acknowledged risk of malaria and 53% risk of yellow fever. However, 36% denied malaria risk and 2% denied risk of yellow fever in the region. The price of tours from travel agencies that did not mention any health risk was significantly lower [1,009.6±500.5 vs 783.9±402USD, t (152)=3, p<0.01] compared with the price from agencies that did mention health risks. Almost all who acknowledged malaria (97%) and/or yellow fever (100%) were able to provide at least one recommendation for prevention. However, advice was not always accurate or spontaneously volunteered. Only 7% of the employees provided both correct scheduling and location information for administration of the yellow fever vaccine. Conclusions The majority of registered travel agencies in Cuzco did not provide sufficient and accurate information regarding risk and prevention of malaria and yellow fever to travelers inquiring about trips to the southern Amazon of Peru. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine. Source

Halsey E.S.,United States Naval Medical Research Unit Six | Gotuzzo E.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Fiestas V.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud | Suarez L.,Direccion General de Epidemiologia | And 5 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: Disease caused by the dengue virus (DENV) is a significant cause of morbidity throughout the world. Although prior research has focused on the association of specific DENV serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4) with the development of severe outcomes such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome, relatively little work has correlated other clinical manifestations with a particular DENV serotype. The goal of this study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of non-hemorrhagic clinical manifestations of DENV infection by serotype. Methodology and Principal Findings: Between the years 2005-2010, individuals with febrile disease from Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay were enrolled in an outpatient passive surveillance study. Detailed information regarding clinical signs and symptoms, as well as demographic information, was collected. DENV infection was confirmed in patient sera with polyclonal antibodies in a culture-based immunofluorescence assay, and the infecting serotype was determined by serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies. Differences in the prevalence of individual and organ-system manifestations were compared across DENV serotypes. One thousand seven hundred and sixteen individuals were identified as being infected with DENV-1 (39.8%), DENV-2 (4.3%), DENV-3 (41.5%), or DENV-4 (14.4%). When all four DENV serotypes were compared with each other, individuals infected with DENV-3 had a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal manifestations, and individuals infected with DENV-4 had a higher prevalence of respiratory and cutaneous manifestations. Conclusions/Significance: Specific clinical manifestations, as well as groups of clinical manifestations, are often overrepresented by an individual DENV serotype. Source

Douce R.W.,Hospital Vozandes | Aleman W.,Hospitals Alcivar y Vernaza | Chicaiza-Ayala W.,Hospital Vozandes | Madrid C.,Hospital Naval | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Tropical countries are thought to play an important role in the global behavior of respiratory infections such as influenza. The tropical country of Ecuador has almost no documentation of the causes of acute respiratory infections. The objectives of this study were to identify the viral agents associated with influenza like illness (ILI) in Ecuador, describe what strains of influenza were circulating in the region along with their epidemiologic characteristics, and perform molecular characterization of those strains. Methodology/Findings: This is a prospective surveillance study of the causes of ILI based on viral culture of oropharyngeal specimens and case report forms obtained in hospitals from two cities of Ecuador over 4 years. Out of 1,702 cases of ILI, nine viral agents were detected in 597 patients. During the time of the study, seven genetic variants of influenza circulated in Ecuador, causing six periods of increased activity. There appeared to be more heterogeneity in the cause of ILI in the tropical city of Guayaquil when compared with the Andean city of Quito. Conclusions/Significance: This was the most extensive documentation of the viral causes of ILI in Ecuador to date. Influenza was a common cause of ILI in Ecuador, causing more than one outbreak per year. There was no well defined influenza season although there were periods of time when no influenza was detected alternating with epidemics of different variant strains. Source

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