United States Naval Medical Research Unit No

Cairo, Egypt

United States Naval Medical Research Unit No

Cairo, Egypt
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Halsey E.S.,United States Naval Medical Research Unit No | Williams M.,United States Naval Medical Research Unit No | Laguna-Torres V.A.,United States Naval Medical Research Unit No | Vilcarromero S.,United States Naval Medical Research Unit No | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2014

Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes an acute febrile illness generally considered to result in either complete recovery or death. Some reviews describe persistent symptoms after the febrile phase, although empirical data supporting this phenomenon is scarce. We evaluated symptom persistence in acute febrile DENV-infected and DENV-negative (controls) individuals from Peru. Self-reported solicited symptoms were evaluated at an acute and a follow-up visit, occurring 10-60 days after symptom onset. Rate of persistence of at least one symptom was 7.7% and 10.5% for DENV infected and control subjects, respectively (P < 0.01). The DENV-infected individuals had lower rates of persistent respiratory symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, headache, and fatigue, but higher rates of persistent rash compared with controls. Older age and female gender were positively associated with symptom persistence. As dengue cases continue to increase annually, even a relatively low frequency of persistent symptoms may represent a considerable worldwide morbidity burden. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


Nelson M.I.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Pollett S.,United States Naval Medical Research Unit No | Pollett S.,University of Sydney | Pollett S.,University of California at San Francisco | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Our understanding of the global ecology of avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) is impeded by historically low levels of viral surveillance in Latin America. Through sampling and wholegenome sequencing of 31 AIVs from wild birds in Peru, we identified 10 HA subtypes (H1- H4, H6-H7, H10-H13) and 8 NA subtypes (N1-N3, N5-N9). The majority of Peruvian AIVs were closely related to AIVs found in North America. However, unusual reassortants, including a H13 virus containing a PA segment related to extremely divergent Argentinian viruses, suggest that substantial AIV diversity circulates undetected throughout South America.


Miranda J.J.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Bernabe-Ortiz A.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Diez-Canseco F.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Malaga G.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | And 19 more authors.
Global Heart | Year: 2015

The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, based at Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, was created in 2009 with support from the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The vision of CRONICAS is to build a globally recognized center of excellence conducting quality and innovative research and generating high-impact evidence for health. The center's identity is embedded in its core values: generosity, innovation, integrity, and quality. This review has been structured to describe the development of the CRONICAS Centre, with a focus on highlighting the ongoing translational research projects and capacity-building strategies. The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence is not a risk-averse organization: it benefits from past experiences, including past mistakes, and improves upon them and thus challenges traditional research approaches. This ethos and environment are key to fostering innovation in research. © 2015 World Heart Federation (Geneva).


Farrell M.,United States Of America Naval Medical Research Unit No | Sebeny P.,United States Naval Medical Research Unit No | Klena J.D.,United States Naval Medical Research Unit No | DeMattos C.,Naval Health Research Center | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:At the onset of an influenza pandemic, when the severity of a novel strain is still undetermined and there is a threat of introduction into a new environment, e.g., via the deployment of military troops, sensitive screening criteria and conservative isolation practices are generally recommended.Objectives:In response to elevated rates of influenza-like illness among U.S. military base camps in Kuwait, U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 partnered with local U.S. Army medical units to conduct an A(H1N1) pdm09 outbreak investigation.Patients/Methods: Initial clinical data and nasal specimens were collected via the existent passive surveillance system and active surveillance was conducted using a modified version of the World Health Organization/U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention influenza-like illness case definition [fever (T > 100.5°F/38°C) in addition to cough and/or sore throat in the previous 72 hours] as the screening criteria. Samples were tested via real-time reverse-transcription PCR and sequenced for comparison to global A(H1N1) pdm09 viruses from the same time period.Results:The screening criteria used in Kuwait proved insensitive, capturing only 16% of A(H1N1) pdm09-positive individuals. While still not ideal, using cough as the sole screening criteria would have increased sensitivity to 73%.Conclusions:The results of and lessons learned from this outbreak investigation suggest that pandemic influenza risk management should be a dynamic process (as information becomes available regarding true attack rates and associated mortality, screening and isolation criteria should be re-evaluated and revised as appropriate), and that military operational environments present unique challenges to influenza surveillance. © 2013 Zumwalt et al.


PubMed | National Major San Marcos University, United States Naval Medical Research Unit No and U.S. National Institutes of Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Our understanding of the global ecology of avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) is impeded by historically low levels of viral surveillance in Latin America. Through sampling and whole-genome sequencing of 31 AIVs from wild birds in Peru, we identified 10 HA subtypes (H1-H4, H6-H7, H10-H13) and 8 NA subtypes (N1-N3, N5-N9). The majority of Peruvian AIVs were closely related to AIVs found in North America. However, unusual reassortants, including a H13 virus containing a PA segment related to extremely divergent Argentinian viruses, suggest that substantial AIV diversity circulates undetected throughout South America.


Fauver J.R.,Colorado State University | Grubaugh N.D.,Colorado State University | Krajacich B.J.,Colorado State University | Weger-Lucarelli J.,Colorado State University | And 10 more authors.
Virology | Year: 2016

Anopheles gambiae are a major vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Viruses that naturally infect these mosquitoes may impact their physiology and ability to transmit pathogens. We therefore used metagenomics sequencing to search for viruses in adult Anopheles mosquitoes collected from Liberia, Senegal, and Burkina Faso. We identified a number of virus and virus-like sequences from mosquito midgut contents, including 14 coding-complete genome segments and 26 partial sequences. The coding-complete sequences define new viruses in the order Mononegavirales, and the families Flaviviridae, and Totiviridae. The identification of a flavivirus infecting Anopheles mosquitoes broadens our understanding of the evolution and host range of this virus family. This study increases our understanding of virus diversity in general, begins to define the virome of a medically important vector in its natural setting, and lays groundwork for future studies examining the potential impact of these viruses on anopheles biology and disease transmission. © 2016 The Authors


PubMed | United States Naval Medical Research Unit No
Type: | Journal: Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials | Year: 2014

Extended-spectrum -lactamases (ESBLs), including the AmpC type, are important mechanisms of resistance among Enterobacteriaeceae. CTX-M type extended-spectrum - lactamases, of which there are now over 90 variants, are distributed globally, yet appear to vary in regional distribution. AmpC -lactamases hydrolyze third generation cephalosporins, but are resistant to inhibition by clavulanate or other -lactamase inhibitors in vitro. Fecal carriage and rates of colonization by bacteria harboring these resistance mechanisms have been reported in patients with community-acquired infections and in healthy members of their households. Expression of these ESBLs compromises the efficacy of current antibacterial therapies, potentially increasing the seriousness of hospital- and community-acquired Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections.To investigate the occurrence of ESBL-producing E. coli in human fecal flora isolated from two pediatric populations residing in the Libyan cities Zleiten and Abou El Khoms. Isolates were further studied to characterize genes encoding -lactam resistance, and establish genetic relationships.Antibiotic resistance profiles of phenotypically characterized E. coli isolates recovered from the stools of 243 Libyan children during two surveillance periods in 2001 and 2007 were determined by the disk diffusion method. ESBL-screening was performed using the cephalosporin/clavulanate double synergy disc method, and the AmpC-phenotype was confirmed by the aminophenyl-boronic acid test. ESBL genes were molecularly characterized. Phylogenetic group and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were determined for ESBL-producing isolates and PFGE was performed to compare banding profiles of some dominant strains.ESBLs were identified in 13.4% (18/134) of E. coli isolates, and nine isolates (6.7%) demonstrated AmpC activity; all 18 isolates contained a CTX-M gene. Three CTX-M gene families (CTX-M-1, n=9; CTX-M-15, n=8 and CTX-M-3, n=1) were distributed in diverse E. coli backgrounds (phylogenetic group D, 39%; B2, 28%; B1, 22% and A, 11%). MLST analysis revealed 14 sequence type (ST) with six new sequence types. The gene encoding the CMY-2 enzyme was detected in five AmpC-positive E. coli.These results identified heterogeneous clones of CTX-M-producing E. coli in the fecal isolates, indicating that the intestinal tract acts as a reservoir for ESBL-producing organisms, and a trafficker of antibiotic resistance genes.

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