United States Naval Medical Research Center Detachment

Lima, Peru

United States Naval Medical Research Center Detachment

Lima, Peru

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Forshey B.M.,United States Naval Medical Research Center Detachment | Guevara C.,United States Naval Medical Research Center Detachment | Laguna-Torres V.A.,United States Naval Medical Research Center Detachment | Cespedes M.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud | And 19 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2010

Background: Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are among the most common agents of human febrile illness worldwide and the most important emerging pathogens, causing multiple notable epidemics of human disease over recent decades. Despite the public health relevance, little is know about the geographic distribution, relative impact, and risk factors for arbovirus infection in many regions of the world. Our objectives were to describe the arboviruses associated with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in participating clinics in four countries in South America and to provide detailed epidemiological analysis of arbovirus infection in Iquitos, Peru, where more extensive monitoring was conducted. Methodology/Findings:A clinic-based syndromic surveillance system was implemented in 13 locations in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay. Serum samples and demographic information were collected from febrile participants reporting to local health clinics or hospitals. Acute-phase sera were tested for viral infection by immunofluorescence assay or RT-PCR, while acute- and convalescent-phase sera were tested for pathogen-specific IgM by ELISA. Between May 2000 and December 2007, 20,880 participants were included in the study, with evidence for recent arbovirus infection detected for 6,793 (32.5%). Dengue viruses (Flavivirus) were the most common arbovirus infections, totaling 26.0% of febrile episodes, with DENV-3 as the most common serotype. Alphavirus (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEEV] and Mayaro virus [MAYV]) and Orthobunyavirus (Oropouche virus [OROV], Group C viruses, and Guaroa virus) infections were both observed in approximately 3% of febrile episodes. In Iquitos, risk factors for VEEV and MAYV infection included being male and reporting to a rural (vs urban) clinic. In contrast, OROV infection was similar between sexes and type of clinic. Conclusions/Significance: Our data provide a better understanding of the geographic range of arboviruses in South America and highlight the diversity of pathogens in circulation. These arboviruses are currently significant causes of human illness in endemic regions but also have potential for further expansion. Our data provide a basis for analyzing changes in their ecology and epidemiology.


Paz-Soldan V.A.,Tulane University | Plasai V.,Ministry of Public Health | Morrison A.C.,University of California at Davis | Rios-Lopez E.J.,United States Naval Medical Research Center Detachment | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2011

As part of a larger research program evaluating chemical threshold levels for a Push-Pull intervention to reduce man-vector ( Aedes aegypti ) contact, this qualitative study explored local perceptions and strategies associated with mosquito control within dengue-endemic communities in Peru and Thailand. Focus groups were used to provide preliminary information that would identify possible public acceptance issues to the Push-Pull strategy in each site. Nine focus group discussions (total of 102 individuals) conducted between September 2008 and March 2009 examined several themes: 1) current mosquito control practices; 2) perceptions of spatial repellency and contact irritancy versus killing mosquitoes; and 3) initial perceptions toward mosquito host-seeking traps. Results indicate participants use householdlevel strategies for insect control that reveal familiarity with the concept of spatial repellent and contact irritant actions of chemicals and that placing traps in the peridomestic environment to remove repelled mosquitoes was acceptable. Preliminary evidence suggests a Push-Pull strategy should be well accepted in these locations. These results will be beneficial for developing future large scale push-pull interventions and are currently being used to guide insecticide application strategies in (entomological) proof-of-concept studies using experimental huts. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


Aguilar P.V.,United States Naval Medical Research Center Detachment | Morrison A.C.,Naval Medical Research Center Detachment | Morrison A.C.,University of California at Davis | Rocha C.,Naval Medical Research Center Detachment | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2010

Guaroa virus (GROV) was first isolated from humans in Colombia in 1959. Subsequent isolates of the virus have been recovered from febrile patients and mosquitoes in Brazil, Colombia, and Panama; however, association of the virus with human disease has been unclear. As part of a study on the etiology of febrile illnesses in Peru and Bolivia, 14 GROV strains were isolated from patients with febrile illnesses, and 3 additional cases were confirmed by IgM seroconversion. The prevalence rate of GROV antibodies among Iquitos residents was 13%; the highest rates were among persons with occupations such as woodcutters, fisherman, and oil-field workers. Genetic characterization of representative GROV isolates indicated that strains from Peru and Bolivia form a monophyletic group that can be distinguished from strains isolated earlier in Brazil and Colombia. This study confirms GROV as a cause of febrile illness in tropical regions of Central and South America. Copyright © 2010 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


Williams R.A.J.,University of Kansas | Williams R.A.J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Segovia-Hinostroza K.,National Major San Marcos University | Ghersi B.M.,National Major San Marcos University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2012

As part of ongoing surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIV) in Peruvian birds, in June 2008, we sampled 600 land birds of 177 species, using real-time reverse-transcription PCR. We addressed the assumption that AIV prevalence is low or nil among land birds, a hypothesis that was not supported by the results-rather, we found AIV infections at relatively high prevalences in birds of the orders Apodiformes (hummingbirds) and Passeriformes (songbirds). Surveillance programs for monitoring spread and identification of AIV should thus not focus solely on water birds. © Wildlife Disease Association 2012.


Maves R.C.,United States Naval Medical Research Center Detachment | Castillo Ore R.M.,United States Naval Medical Research Center Detachment | Porter K.R.,United States Naval Medical Research Center | Kochel T.J.,United States Naval Medical Research Center Detachment
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2010

We evaluated a novel psoralen-inactivated dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) vaccine candidate in Mus musculus mice. Mice received intradermal alum or 5 to 10 ng of psoralen-inactivated virus. Anti-DENV-1 neutralizing antibody was detectable in 10/11 mice receiving a 10-ng dose at 90 days. Psoralen-inactivated DENV-1 is immunogenic in mice.


Herrera A.,United States Naval Medical Research Center Detachment | Espinosa B.J.,United States Naval Medical Research Center Detachment | Nunez G.,United States Naval Medical Research Center Detachment | Espinoza N.,United States Naval Medical Research Center Detachment | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Travel Medicine | Year: 2010

Background. Cebiche is a common dish in Latin America, prepared using raw fish mixed with vegetables and marinated with lime juice. The acidity of the lime juice is commonly believed to destroy bacteria and render cebiche as safe to eat. Little data exist concerning rates of cebiche-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks, although these may be high given the popularity of the dish. Methods. We inoculated raw fish with Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to determine the effect of the cebiche preparation process on bacterial viability. Raw fish were exposed to a suspension of 1.0-10 8 colony-forming units (CFUs) of each organism in a 50-mL solution, prior to the addition of cebiche ingredients. A typical Peruvian cebiche recipe was used combining limes, onions, sweet potatoes, cilantro, and hot peppers marinated together for 30 minutes. A homogenized mixture of the dish was then evaluated for pH and bacterial counts at 0, 10, and 30 minutes. As much as 100 μL of inocula were streaked onto tryptic soy agar (TSA) agar plates and incubated for 24 hours. Results. The initial average pH of the fish was 6.4 prior to adding cebiche ingredients and 5.0 immediately afterwards. The pH at 10-and 30-minute periods was 5.4 and 5.2, respectively. Little reduction in bacterial counts was observed at either the 10-or 30-minute time periods, with counts increasing at 30 minutes. Conclusions. The putative bactericidal role of lime juice in the preparation process is not sufficient to reduce the microbial population present in cebiche. Pathogens may remain viable after exposure to acidic conditions. The increasing popularity of Peruvian cuisine may also lead to cebiche-associated illness outside of Latin America. © Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


PubMed | United States Naval Medical Research Center Detachment
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2010

We describe the temporal variation in viral agents detected in influenza like illness (ILI) patients before and after the appearance of the ongoing pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1) in Peru between 4-January and 13-July 2009.At the health centers, one oropharyngeal swab was obtained for viral isolation. From epidemiological week (EW) 1 to 18, at the US Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD) in Lima, the specimens were inoculated into four cell lines for virus isolation. In addition, from EW 19 to 28, the specimens were also analyzed by real time-polymerase-chain-reaction (rRT-PCR).We enrolled 2,872 patients: 1,422 cases before the appearance of the pH1N1 virus, and 1,450 during the pandemic. Non-pH1N1 influenza A virus was the predominant viral strain circulating in Peru through (EW) 18, representing 57.8% of the confirmed cases; however, this predominance shifted to pH1N1 (51.5%) from EW 19-28. During this study period, most of pH1N1 cases were diagnosed in the capital city (Lima) followed by other cities including Cusco and Trujillo. In contrast, novel influenza cases were essentially absent in the tropical rain forest (jungle) cities during our study period. The city of Iquitos (Jungle) had the highest number of influenza B cases and only one pH1N1 case.The viral distribution in Peru changed upon the introduction of the pH1N1 virus compared to previous months. Although influenza A viruses continue to be the predominant viral pathogen, the pH1N1 virus predominated over the other influenza A viruses.


PubMed | United States Naval Medical Research Center Detachment
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of travel medicine | Year: 2010

Cebiche is a common dish in Latin America, prepared using raw fish mixed with vegetables and marinated with lime juice. The acidity of the lime juice is commonly believed to destroy bacteria and render cebiche as safe to eat. Little data exist concerning rates of cebiche-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks, although these may be high given the popularity of the dish.We inoculated raw fish with Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to determine the effect of the cebiche preparation process on bacterial viability. Raw fish were exposed to a suspension of 1.0 10(8) colony-forming units (CFUs) of each organism in a 50-mL solution, prior to the addition of cebiche ingredients. A typical Peruvian cebiche recipe was used combining limes, onions, sweet potatoes, cilantro, and hot peppers marinated together for 30 minutes. A homogenized mixture of the dish was then evaluated for pH and bacterial counts at 0, 10, and 30 minutes. As much as 100 L of inocula were streaked onto tryptic soy agar (TSA) agar plates and incubated for 24 hours.The initial average pH of the fish was 6.4 prior to adding cebiche ingredients and 5.0 immediately afterwards. The pH at 10- and 30-minute periods was 5.4 and 5.2, respectively. Little reduction in bacterial counts was observed at either the 10- or 30-minute time periods, with counts increasing at 30 minutes.The putative bactericidal role of lime juice in the preparation process is not sufficient to reduce the microbial population present in cebiche. Pathogens may remain viable after exposure to acidic conditions. The increasing popularity of Peruvian cuisine may also lead to cebiche-associated illness outside of Latin America.


PubMed | United States Naval Medical Research Center Detachment
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2010

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are among the most common agents of human febrile illness worldwide and the most important emerging pathogens, causing multiple notable epidemics of human disease over recent decades. Despite the public health relevance, little is know about the geographic distribution, relative impact, and risk factors for arbovirus infection in many regions of the world. Our objectives were to describe the arboviruses associated with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in participating clinics in four countries in South America and to provide detailed epidemiological analysis of arbovirus infection in Iquitos, Peru, where more extensive monitoring was conducted.A clinic-based syndromic surveillance system was implemented in 13 locations in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay. Serum samples and demographic information were collected from febrile participants reporting to local health clinics or hospitals. Acute-phase sera were tested for viral infection by immunofluorescence assay or RT-PCR, while acute- and convalescent-phase sera were tested for pathogen-specific IgM by ELISA. Between May 2000 and December 2007, 20,880 participants were included in the study, with evidence for recent arbovirus infection detected for 6,793 (32.5%). Dengue viruses (Flavivirus) were the most common arbovirus infections, totaling 26.0% of febrile episodes, with DENV-3 as the most common serotype. Alphavirus (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEEV] and Mayaro virus [MAYV]) and Orthobunyavirus (Oropouche virus [OROV], Group C viruses, and Guaroa virus) infections were both observed in approximately 3% of febrile episodes. In Iquitos, risk factors for VEEV and MAYV infection included being male and reporting to a rural (vs urban) clinic. In contrast, OROV infection was similar between sexes and type of clinic.Our data provide a better understanding of the geographic range of arboviruses in South America and highlight the diversity of pathogens in circulation. These arboviruses are currently significant causes of human illness in endemic regions but also have potential for further expansion. Our data provide a basis for analyzing changes in their ecology and epidemiology.

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