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Fort Pierce, FL, United States

Diaz R.,University of Florida | Dickey A.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Shatters R.G.,United States Horticultural Research Laboratory | Manrique V.,University of Florida | And 2 more authors.
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2015

Four populations of Calophya spp. (Hemiptera: Calophyidae) collected in Brazil were characterized using molecular and morphological methods. Examination of adults revealed the presence of 2 morphotypes, which were identified as C. latiforceps and C. terebinthifolii. However, morphological examination of 5th instar nymphs detected differences within C. latiforceps, with a population from Ubu, Espírito Santo, being distinct from the other 2 populations. Molecular characterization of the mitochondrial CO1 gene supported the presence of a new species of Calophya. .

Lin Y.,University of Florida | Lin Y.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University | He Z.,University of Florida | Rosskopf E.N.,United States Horticultural Research Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2010

A new nylon membrane bag (NMB) assay was developed for studies to determine the effect of chemicals added to soil on survival of soilborne plant pathogens. The rapid and effective assay can be used to study organisms for which there are no selective media or for which a selective medium is expensive or difficult to prepare. This assay consists of placing pathogens inside a bag made of small-pore (0.22-μm) nylon filtration membrane, which is placed in soil and later retrieved to determine survival of the pathogens on nonselective media. Chemicals but not other microorganisms can enter the bag from the soil. Using this assay, Streptomyces scabies, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3, and Ralstonia solanacearum were successfully recovered from soil after 72 h as demonstrated by growth on a semiselective Streptomyces medium (S.scabies) or nonselective potato dextrose agar medium (F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 and R. solanacearum) with minimal microbial contamination. Addition of acetic acid (200 mM) to soil killed 100% of S. scabies. SPK (a mixture of organic chemicals) at a concentration of 1,500 mg kg-1 of soil killed 83.3% of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 culture plugs, 100% of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 spores, and 97.2% of R. solanacearum cells. SPK at 1,000 mg kg-1 of soil killed 50% of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 culture plugs, 68.2% of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 spores, and 12% of R. solanacearum. Benlate (500 to 1,500 mg kg-1 of soil) did not kill the culture plugs of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 but reduced the growth rate of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3. Benlate (500, 1,000, and 1,500 mg kg-1 of soil) reduced F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 spore germination by 39.4, 49.3, and 50.4%, respectively. Streptomycin sulfate (1,500, 800, 400, and 200 mg kg-1 of soil) caused 75.3, 21, 11.9, and 0.9% mortality, respectively, of R. solanacearum. Copyright © 2010 The American Phytopathological Society.

Chris Wilson P.,University of Florida | Albano J.P.,United States Horticultural Research Laboratory
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2013

Nitrate losses in surface runoff water from nursery production areas can be significant. This study evaluated the potential use of microbial-based (denitrification), flow-through bioreactors for their nitrate-remediation ability. Duplicate bioreactor systems were constructed at a local foliage plant nursery. Each bioreactor system consisted of four 242L tanks with connections alternating between bottom and top. Each tank was filled with approximately 113L of Kaldness media to provide surface area for attachment of native microflora. Molasses was supplied as a carbon source for denitrification and water flow rates through the systems ranged from 5 to 18Lmin-1 during tests. Automatic water samplers were used to collect composite samples every 15min from both the inflow and the exit flow water. Results indicate consistent removal of 80-100% of the nitrate flowing into the systems. Accumulation of ammoniacal and nitrite nitrogen did not occur, indicating that the nitrate-nitrogen was removed from the water, and not simply transformed into another water-soluble species. Occasions where removal rates were less than 80% were usually traced to faulty delivery of the carbon source. Results indicate that modular microbial-based bioremediation systems may be a useful tool for helping water managers meet stringent nitrogen water quality regulations, especially at nurseries with limited space for expansion of water retention facilities. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Hilf M.E.,United States Horticultural Research Laboratory | Sims K.R.,United States Horticultural Research Laboratory | Folimonova S.Y.,University of Florida | Achor D.S.,University of Florida
Phytopathology | Year: 2013

'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' is the bacterium implicated as a causal agent of the economically damaging disease of citrus called huanglongbing (HLB). Vertical transmission of the organism through seed to the seedling has not been demonstrated. Previous studies using real-time polymerase chain reaction assays indicated abundant bacterial 16S rRNA sequences in seed coats of citrus seed but the presence of intact bacterial cells was not demonstrated. We used microscopy to verify that intact bacterial cells were present in citrus seed coats. Bacterial cells with the morphology and physical dimensions appropriate for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' were seen in phloem sieve elements in the vascular bundle of grapefruit seed coats using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses utilizing probes complementary to the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' 16S rRNA gene revealed bacterial cells in the vascular tissue of intact seed coats of grapefruit and pummel and in fragmented vascular bundles excised from grapefruit seed coats. The physical measurements and the morphology of individual bacterial cells were consistent with those ascribed in the literature to 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. No bacterial cells were observed in preparations of seed from fruit from noninfected trees. A small library of clones amplified from seed coats from a noninfected tree using degenerate primers targeting prokaryote 16S rRNA gene sequences contained no 'Ca. L. asiaticus' sequences, whereas 95% of the sequences in a similar library from DNA from seed coats from an infected tree were identified as 'Ca. L. asiaticus', providing molecular genetic corroboration that the bacterial cells observed by TEM and FISH in seed coats from infected trees were 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. © 2013 The American Phytopathological Society.

Pascacio-Villafan C.,Institute Ecologia | Lapointe S.,United States Horticultural Research Laboratory | Williams T.,Institute Ecologia | Sivinski J.,Center for Medical | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2014

Host plant resistance to insect attack and expansion of insect pests to novel hosts may to be modulated by phenolic compounds in host plants. Many studies have evaluated the role of phenolics in host plant resistance and the effect of phenolics on herbivore performance, but few studies have tested the joint effect of several compounds. Here, we used mixture-amount experimental design and response surface modeling to study the effects of a variety of phenolic compounds on the development and survival of Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens [Loew]), a notorious polyphagous pest of fruit crops that is likely to expand its distribution range under climate change scenarios. (+)- Catechin, phloridzin, rutin, chlorogenic acid, and p-coumaric acid were added individually or in mixtures at different concentrations to a laboratory diet used to rear individuals of A. ludens. No effect was observed with any mixture or concentration on percent pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, or survival from neonate larvae to adults. Larval weight, larval and pupal developmental time, and the prevalence of adult deformities were affected by particular mixtures and concentrations of the compounds tested. We suggest that some combinations/concentrations of phenolic compounds could contribute to the management of A. ludens. We also highlight the importance of testing mixtures of plant secondary compounds when exploring their effects upon insect herbivore performance, and we show that mixture-amount design is a useful tool for this type of experiments. © 2014 The Author(s).

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