Benedek D.M.,United Road Services
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease | Year: 2011
The psychological and behavioral consequences of exposure to traumatic events have been described throughout our history. However, the term posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was not formally introduced into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, until after Dr Eugene Brody-whose broad interests included refugee populations and victims of trauma-had already served as editor-in-chief of the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (JNMD) for 15 years. Advances in molecular biology, genetics, and imaging that occurred during Brody's tenure at the JNMD contributed significantly to our current understanding of the human fear response and the neurobiology of PTSD. Comprehensive treatment guidelines summarizing evidence-based treatment were published during his tenure, and the most recent American Psychiatric Association update to practice standards was published in the year before his passing. Thus, this review of the history and present state of the science of PTSD summarizes the lessons learned while Dr Brody dedicated his life to teaching us. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Watts N.B.,United Road Services
Endocrine Practice | Year: 2013
Objective: To review information pertinent to bone health and osteoporosis in men.Methods: A review of pertinent literature was conducted.Results: Osteoporosis affects approximately 2 million men in the US and accounts for an estimated 600,000 fractures each year. There are significant differences in skeletal size and structure between men and women that account for differences in fracture incidence, location, and outcomes. Bone density testing is appropriate for men age 70 and older and younger men (50-69) who have risk factors for osteoporosis. Lifestyle management, including adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, appropriate physical activity, and avoidance of tobacco and heavy alcohol use, is appropriate for all men. Pharmacologic therapy to reduce fracture risk is advisable for men with a clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis (a spine or hip fracture) or a T-score of -2.5 or below in the spine, femoral neck, total hip or 1/3 radius; however, the majority of men at high risk will only be identified using a fracture risk assessment tool, such as FRAX. Alendronate, risedronate, zoledronic acid, denosumab, and teriparatide are Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapeutic options.Conclusions: Osteoporosis in men presents an important public health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. There are recommended strategies for identifying men at high risk of fracture, and effective agents are available for treatment. © 2013 AACE.
Elder R.W.,United Road Services
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2012
The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends person-to-person interventions intended to modify adolescents' risk and protective behaviors by improving their caregivers' parenting skills, on the basis of sufficient evidence of effectiveness in reducing adolescent risk behaviors. These interventions, conducted face-to-face or by telephone, occur outside of clinical settings.
Song G.-L.,General Motors |
Xu Z.,United Road Services
Corrosion Science | Year: 2012
In this study, scanning Kelvin probe, in situ scanning vibrating electrode technique and micro-electrochemical electrolyte cell are employed to investigate the corrosion of polycrystalline pure Mg. It is found that differently oriented Mg grains have different electrochemical activities and corrosion behavior. The grain with a basal orientation is more stable and corrosion resistant, exhibiting a more positive corrosion potential, lower anodic polarization current density, larger impedance, and thinner surface film than the grain with a non-basal orientation. A corrosion model is proposed to explain the differences in electrochemical corrosion performance between these grains. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Watts N.B.,United Road Services
Nature Reviews Endocrinology | Year: 2014
GLOW is an observational, longitudinal, practice-based cohort study of osteoporosis in 60,393 women aged ‰ 55 years in 10 countries on three continents. In this Review, we present insights from the first 3 years of the study. Despite cost analyses being frequently based on spine and hip fractures, we found that nonvertebral, nonhip fractures were around five times more common and doubled the use of health-care resources compared with hip and spine fractures combined. Fractures not at the four so-called major sites in FRAX ® (upper arm, forearm, hip and clinical vertebral fractures) account for >40% of all fractures. The risk of fracture is increased by various comorbidities, such as Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis and lung and heart disease. Obesity, although thought to be protective against all fractures, substantially increased the risk of fractures in the ankle or lower leg. Simple assessment by age plus fracture history has good predictive value for all fractures, but risk profiles differ for first and subsequent fractures. Fractures diminish quality of life as much or more than diabetes mellitus, arthritis and lung disease, yet women substantially underestimate their own fracture risk. Treatment rates in patients at high risk of fracture are below those recommended but might be too frequent in women at low risk. Comorbidities and the limits of current therapeutic regimens jeopardize the efficacy of drugs; new regimens should be explored for severe cases. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.