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Sinha R.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Daniel C.R.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Devasenapathy N.,Center for Chronic Disease Control | Shetty H.,Sekhsaria Institute for Public Health | And 15 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2011

Background: India's population exhibits diverse dietary habits and chronic disease patterns. Nutritional epidemiologic studies in India are primarily of cross-sectional or case-control design and subject to biases, including differential recall of past diet. The aim of this feasibility study was to evaluate whether a diet-focused cohort study of cancer could be established in India, providing insight into potentially unique diet and lifestyle exposures. Methods. Field staff contacted 7,064 households within three regions of India (New Delhi, Mumbai, and Trivandrum) and found 4,671 eligible adults aged 35-69 years. Participants completed interviewer-administered questionnaires (demographic, diet history, physical activity, medical/reproductive history, tobacco/alcohol use, and occupational history), and staff collected biological samples (blood, urine, and toenail clippings), anthropometric measurements (weight, standing and sitting height; waist, hip, and thigh circumference; triceps, sub-scapula and supra-patella skin fold), and blood pressure measurements. Results: Eighty-eight percent of eligible subjects completed all questionnaires and 67% provided biological samples. Unique protein sources by region were fish in Trivandrum, dairy in New Delhi, and pulses (legumes) in Mumbai. Consumption of meat, alcohol, fast food, and soft drinks was scarce in all three regions. A large percentage of the participants were centrally obese and had elevated blood glucose levels. New Delhi participants were also the least physically active and had elevated lipids levels, suggesting a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusions: A high percentage of participants complied with study procedures including biological sample collection. Epidemiologic expertise and sufficient infrastructure exists at these three sites in India to successfully carry out a modest sized population-based study; however, we identified some potential problems in conducting a cohort study, such as limited number of facilities to handle biological samples. © 2011 Sinha et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Mathew A.,Regional Cancer Center | Daniel C.R.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Ferrucci L.M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Seth T.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | And 12 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology | Year: 2011

Background: A prospective study of diet and cancer has not been conducted in India; consequently, little is known regarding follow-up rates or the completeness and accuracy of cancer case ascertainment. Methods: We assessed follow-up in the India Health Study (IHS; 4671 participants aged 35-69 residing in New Delhi, Mumbai, or Trivandrum). We evaluated the impact of medical care access and relocation, re-contacted the IHS participants to estimate follow-up rates, and conducted separate studies of cancer cases to evaluate registry coverage (604 cases in Trivandrum) and the accuracy of self- and proxy-reporting (1600 cases in New Delhi and Trivandrum). Results: Over 97% of people reported seeing a doctor and 85% had lived in their current residence for over six years. The 2-year follow-up rate was 91% for Trivandrum and 53% for New Delhi. No cancer cases were missed among public institutions participating in the surveillance program in Trivandrum during 2003-2004; but there are likely to be unmatched cases (ranging from 5 to 13% of total cases) from private hospitals in the Trivandrum registry, as there are no mandatory reporting requirements. Vital status was obtained for 36% of cancer cases in New Delhi as compared to 78% in Trivandrum after a period of 4 years. Conclusions: A prospective cohort study of cancer may be feasible in some centers in India with active follow-up to supplement registry data. Inclusion of cancers diagnosed at private institutions, unique identifiers for individuals, and computerized medical information would likely improve cancer registries. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | FHI360, Center for Nutrition and Food Security and United Nations World Food Program
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The American journal of clinical nutrition | Year: 2016

Complementary food supplements (CFSs) can enhance growth where stunting is common, but substitution for the usual diet may reduce observed benefits.We aimed to characterize dietary diversity from home foods in a CFS efficacy trial and determine whether supplementation reduced breastfeeding frequency or displaced home foods.In a cluster-randomized controlled trial in rural Bangladesh, children (n = 5499) received, for 1 y starting at age 6 mo, periodic child feeding counseling for mothers (control) or counseling plus 1 of 4 CFSs fed as a daily snack. Breastfeeding status and past 24-h diet were assessed at enrollment and every 3 mo thereafter until 18 mo of age. A 7-food group dietary diversity score (DDS) was calculated from home foods only, and a DDS 4 constituted minimum dietary diversity (MDD).Most children (97%) were breastfed through 18 mo of age, and 24-h breastfeeding frequency did not differ by supplementation group. Child dietary diversity was low; only 51% of children met the MDD by 18 mo. Rice, potatoes, and biscuits (cookies) were the most frequently consumed foods, whereas the legumes, dairy, eggs, and vitamin A-rich fruit and vegetable food groups were each consumed by <50% of children. The odds of meeting the MDD through the consumption of home foods were equal or greater in the supplemented groups compared with the control group at all ages. High socioeconomic status and any maternal education were associated with increased odds of MDD at age 18 mo, whereas child sex and household food security were not associated with MDD.In a setting where daily complementary food supplementation improved linear growth, there was no evidence that supplementation displaced breastfeeding or home foods, and the supplementation may have improved dietary diversity. Pathways by which supplementation with fortified foods may enhance dietary diversity, such as an improved appetite and increased body size, need elucidation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01562379.


Palar K.,University of California at San Francisco | Palar K.,RAND Corporation | Derose K.P.,RAND Corporation | Linnemayr S.,RAND Corporation | And 5 more authors.
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2015

Optimal strategies to improve food security and nutrition for people living with HIV (PLHIV) may differ in settings where overweight and obesity are prevalent and cardiovascular disease risk is a concern. However, no studies among PLHIV have investigated the impact of food support on nutritional outcomes in these settings. We therefore assessed the effect of food support on food insecurity and body weight in a population of PLHIV with high prevalence of overweight and obesity. We implemented a pilot intervention trial in four government-run HIV clinics in Honduras. The trial tested the effect of a monthly household food ration plus nutrition education (n = 203), compared to nutrition education alone (n = 197), over 12 months. Participants were clinic patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Assessments were obtained at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcomes for this analysis were food security, using the validated Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale and body weight (kg). Thirty-one percent of participants were overweight (22%) or obese (8%) at baseline. At 6 months, the probability of severe food insecurity decreased by 48.3% (p < 0.01) in the food support group, compared to 11.6% in the education-only group (p < 0.01). Among overweight or obese participants, food support led to average weight gain of 1.13 kg (p < 0.01), while nutrition education alone was associated with average weight loss of 0.72 kg (p < 0.10). Nutrition education alone was associated with weight gain among underweight and normal weight participants. Household food support may improve food security but not necessarily nutritional status of ART recipients above and beyond nutrition education. Improving nutritional tailoring of food support and testing the impact of nutrition education should be prioritized for PLHIV in Latin America and similar settings. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Martinez H.,RAND Corporation | Martinez H.,Hospital Infantil Of Mexico Dr Federico Gomez | Palar K.,RAND Corporation | Palar K.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 6 more authors.
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2014

Food insecurity and malnutrition negatively affect adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and are associated with poor HIV clinical outcomes. We examined the effect of providing household food assistance and nutrition education on ART adherence. A 12-month prospective clinical trial compared the effect of a monthly household food basket (FB) plus nutrition education (NE) versus NE alone on ART adherence on 400 HIV patients at four clinics in Honduras. Participants had been receiving ART for an average of 3.7 years and were selected because they had suboptimal adherence. Primary outcome measures were missed clinic appointments, delayed prescription refills, and self-reported missed doses of ART. These three adherence measures improved for both groups over 12 months (p < 0.01), mostly within 6 months. On-time prescription refills improved for the FB plus NE group by 19.6 % more than the group receiving NE alone after 6 months (p < 0.01), with no further change at 12 months. Change in missed appointments and self-reported missed ART doses did not significantly differ by intervention group. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Abebaw D.,Ethiopian Economic Policy Research Institute | Fentie Y.,United Nations World Food Program | Kassa B.,Haramaya University
Food Policy | Year: 2010

With the financial support from various development partners, Ethiopia has designed and implemented several programs to improve household food security. Yet, food insecurity is still a major challenge to several millions of people in the country and it is questionable whether the different food security programs implemented over the past years have been successful. Using a propensity score matching method to control for pre-intervention differences, this study examined the impact on household food calorie intake of an integrated food security program (IFSP), which had been implemented in Northwestern Ethiopia by two non-governmental organizations as a case study. The estimated results provide evidence that IFSP has a positive and statistically significant effect on food calorie intake. In particular, IFSP has raised physical food calorie intake by 30% among the beneficiary households. However, we also found that IFSP has differential impact depending on family size, landownership and gender of head of household. Overall, the paper provides evidence that supporting integrated food security programs is important to improve food security in rural areas. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Kuong K.,Harvest Technologies | Kuong K.,Copenhagen University | Fiorentino M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Perignon M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 10 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2016

Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection has been associated with lower cognitive performance of schoolchildren. To identify pathways through which STH infection might affect school performance, baseline data from a large rice-fortification trial in Cambodian schoolchildren were used to investigate associations between STH infection, micronutrient status, anemia, and cognitive performance. Complete data on anthropometry, cognitive performance, and micronutrient status were available for 1,760 schoolchildren, 6-16 years of age. STH infection was identified using Kato-Katz, whereas cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), block design, and picture completion. STH infection was found in 18% of the children; almost exclusively hookwork infection. After adjusting for age and gender, raw cognitive test scores were significantly lower in hookworminfected children (-0.65; -0.78; -2.03 points for picture completion, RCPM, and block design, respectively; P < 0.05 for all). Hookworm infection was associated with iron status (total body iron), but not with vitamin A and zinc status, nor with inflammation or anthropometry. Body iron was negatively associated with increased intensity of hookworm infection (R = 0.22, P < 0.001). Hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren was associated with lower cognitive performance, an effect most likely mediated through lower body iron. Interventions that are more effective against hookworm infection are needed to contribute to better health and improvement of cognitive performance. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


PubMed | Harvest Technologies, Copenhagen University, United Nations World Food Program, National Center for Parasitology and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene | Year: 2016

Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection has been associated with lower cognitive performance of schoolchildren. To identify pathways through which STH infection might affect school performance, baseline data from a large rice-fortification trial in Cambodian schoolchildren were used to investigate associations between STH infection, micronutrient status, anemia, and cognitive performance. Complete data on anthropometry, cognitive performance, and micronutrient status were available for 1,760 schoolchildren, 6-16 years of age. STH infection was identified using Kato-Katz, whereas cognitive performance was assessed using Ravens Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), block design, and picture completion. STH infection was found in 18% of the children; almost exclusively hookwork infection. After adjusting for age and gender, raw cognitive test scores were significantly lower in hookworm-infected children (-0.65; -0.78; -2.03 points for picture completion, RCPM, and block design, respectively; P < 0.05 for all). Hookworm infection was associated with iron status (total body iron), but not with vitamin A and zinc status, nor with inflammation or anthropometry. Body iron was negatively associated with increased intensity of hookworm infection (R = 0.22, P < 0.001). Hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren was associated with lower cognitive performance, an effect most likely mediated through lower body iron. Interventions that are more effective against hookworm infection are needed to contribute to better health and improvement of cognitive performance.

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