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Bazilian M.,United Nations Industrial Development Organisation | Outhred H.,University of New South Wales | Miller A.,International Finance Corporation | Kimble M.,United Nations Foundation
Energy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2010

We briefly consider the trend towards relying on the tools, systems and resources of national energy policy to meet international climate change mitigation goals. Within this paradigm, the myriad energy-related aspects of climate change policy should be explicitly addressed as a sub-set of energy policy rather than the reverse, with the positive goal of building a low-carbon economy rather than the negative task of reducing emissions. While international signals on global targets for climate change mitigation are valuable, they will only be realised if "grounded" into specific policy sectors that address core objectives of society (like security of energy service delivery). Various facets of energy policy from the geo-politics of the global trade in fossil fuels, to development of renewable energy technologies, to national power system planning and operation lend themselves to this approach. It remains the case that modifying the goals of energy policy to encompass delivery of climate goals will require a change in focus of energy decision-makers and institutions. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Van Berkel R.,United Nations Industrial Development Organisation
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2010

Since 1994 UNIDO and UNEP cooperate in a Programme to establish National Cleaner Production Centres (NCPCs) as a mechanism for delivery of Cleaner Production (CP) services to businesses, governments and other organisations. In 2007, 38 NCPCs were operational in 37 developing and transition countries. While initially set up in near-identical ways in each country, over time NCPCs evolved in response to both programme-internal and country-level factors. The resulting diversity among NCPCs is described and analysed here. Differentiation and specialisation had occurred in service areas or topics both within and between NCPCs, however without a clear strategy for integration and synergy. NCPCs were becoming part of expanding networks of business services providers nationally forcing some to focus on audit and training services (tier 1), and others on specialist services in CP technology and/or policy (tier 2) and/or networking services (tier 3). All NCPCs were on a trajectory from a project management organisation to a nationally-owned entity. The different management requirements were not proactively managed and technical aspects of CP service delivery overshadowed institutional and governance aspects of establishing and operating the NCPC institution. Differences in service delivery methods between NCPCs are most evident in three service areas: CP assessments; policy advice; and transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies. It is argued here that understanding root causes and benefits of this presently-observed differentiation, could lay the foundation for capturing and advancing best practice CP concepts, methods and policies. This in turn would enable strategic planning for customised interventions and support at the national level. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Bazilian M.,United Nations Industrial Development Organisation | Sagar A.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Detchon R.,United Nations Foundation | Yumkella K.,United Nations Industrial Development Organisation
Energy Policy | Year: 2010

One hundred years before the advent of modern power systems, William Blake in The Marriage of Heaven and Hell argued with the Devil asserting that "Energy is Eternal Delight". That delight however, remains beyond the reach of the two to three billion of people disadvantaged by a lack of modern energy services-a number that has remained relatively unchanged over recent decades. This is arguably the most disturbing of insights from an examination of global energy-use trends, and a simple, clear justification for a political prioritisation of the issue. It is widely accepted that a lack of access to energy services is a fundamental hindrance to human, social, and economic development. Addressing it comprehensively would have enormous multiple benefits. However, current efforts are woefully insufficient in scale, scope, and design, and attempting to address the issue solely as part of wider poverty reduction policies is likely to be sub-optimal. We discuss energy policy (with a focus on energy security) as an effective vehicle for large-scale action in providing modern, clean energy services. To this end, we outline specific and limited examples of where international cooperation could play a role supporting national actions and ensuring universal access. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bazilian M.,United Nations Industrial Development Organisation | Bazilian M.,International Institute For Applied Systems Analysis | Rice A.,University of Cambridge | Rotich J.,Ushahidi | And 7 more authors.
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

Informed energy decision making requires effective software, high-quality input data, and a suitably trained user community. Developing these resources can be expensive and time consuming. Even when data and tools are intended for public re-use they often come with technical, legal, economic and social barriers that make them difficult to adopt, adapt and combine for use in new contexts. We focus on the promise of open, publically accessible software and data as well as crowdsourcing techniques to develop robust energy analysis tools that can deliver crucial, policy-relevant insight, particularly in developing countries, where planning resources are highly constrained-and the need to adapt these resources and methods to the local context is high. We survey existing research, which argues that these techniques can produce high-quality results, and also explore the potential role that linked, open data can play in both supporting the modelling process and in enhancing public engagement with energy issues. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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