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Bodart C.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Eva H.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Beuchle R.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Rasi R.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | And 5 more authors.
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

In support to the Remote Sensing Survey of the global Forest Resource Assessment 2010, the TREES-3 project has processed more than 12,000 Landsat TM and ETM+ data subsets systematically distributed over the tropics. The project aims at deriving area estimates of tropical forest cover change for the periods 1990-2000-2005. The paper presents the pre-processing steps applied in an operational and robust manner to this large amount of multi-date and multi-scene imagery: conversion to top-of-atmosphere reflectance, cloud and cloud shadow detection, haze correction and image radiometric normalization. The results show that the haze correction algorithm has improved the visual appearance of the image and significantly corrected the digital numbers for Landsat visible bands, especially the red band. The impact of the normalization procedures (forest normalization and relative normalization) was assessed on 210 image pairs: in all cases the correlation between the spectral values of the same land cover in both images was improved. The developed automatic pre-processing chain provided a consistent multi-temporal data set across the tropics that will constitute the basis for an automatic object-based supervised classification. © 2011 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).

Uludag A.,Duzce University | Uludag A.,Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University | Gbehounou G.,United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization FAO | Kashefi J.,European Biological Control Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2016

Silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium, Cav.) is one of the important invasive plant species in Mediterranean Basin countries. Over the last 60 years, this plant has gone from a few accidental introductions to near monospecific populations in many areas of the Mediterranean Basin (in particular Greece and Morocco). Recent findings from Lebanon show that the invasion is ongoing. Solanum elaeagnifolium has a negative impact on crops, causing up to 75% yield loss, as well as an indirect impact by harbouring plant pests and diseases. Solanum elaeagnifolium is toxic to livestock and has a negative affect on the quality of life for humans. Losses of potential resource or revenue caused by its invasion include: decreased forage quality on grazing lands; decreased cropping land and amenity values of public space; increased water loss; increased water conveyancing costs; and increased forest restoration costs. Available control techniques need to be strengthened to reduce the impact of S. elaeagnifolium and prevent its spread. More attention needs to be devoted to biological control, which could provide regional management of this invasive alien plant. Sustainable management of S. elaeagnifolium will require coordination, education and support across the affected countries. Governments must have the means to detect, manage and control S. elaeagnifolium. © 2016 The Authors.

Gebreyes W.A.,Ohio State University | Dupouy-Camet J.,University of Paris Descartes | Newport M.J.,Center for Global Health Research | Oliveira C.J.B.,Federal University of Paraiba | And 15 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2014

Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight advances in key zoonotic disease areas and the One Health capacity needs. © 2014 Gebreyes et al.

Jackson L.,University of California at Davis | van Noordwijk M.,World Agroforestry Center South East Asia | Bengtsson J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Foster W.,University of Cambridge | And 5 more authors.
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2010

Rapid changes in land use, food systems, and livelihoods require social-ecological systems that keep multiple options open and prepare for future unpredictability. Sustainagility refers to the properties and assets of a system that sustain the ability (agility) of agents to adapt and meet their needs in new ways. In contrast, sustainability tends to invoke persistence along current trajectories, and the resilience to return to current baselines. With three examples, the use and conservation of agrobiodiversity is explored along temporal, spatial, and human institutional scales for its role in sustainagility: first, farmers' seed systems; second, complex pollination systems; and third, wildlife conservation in agricultural areas with high poverty. Incentives are necessary if agrobiodiversity is to provide benefits to future generations. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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