De Franca Doria M.,United Nations Educational
A better understanding of the processes that influence public perception can contribute to improvements in water management, consumer services, acceptability of water reuse and risk communication, among other areas. This paper discusses some of the main variables involved in public perception of drinking water quality. Research on this topic suggests that perceptions of water quality result from a complex interaction of diverse factors. In many circumstances, the estimation of water quality is mostly influenced by organoleptic properties, in particular flavour. In addition, a variety of other factors also have an influence on perceptions of quality. These include risk perception, attitudes towards water chemicals, contextual cues provided by the supply system, familiarity with specific water properties, trust in suppliers, past problems attributed to water quality and information provided by the mass media and interpersonal sources. The role and relevance of these factors are discussed in detail. © IWA Publishing 2010. Source
Lemarchand G.A.,United Nations Educational
We analyse the national production of academic knowledge in all Iberoamerican and Caribbean countries between 1973 and 2010. We show that the total number of citable scientific publications listed in the Science Citation Index (SCI), the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) and Arts and Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI) follow an exponential growth, the same as their national productivity (number of publications per capita). During the last 38 years, Portugal shows the highest growth rate in both indicators. We explore the temporal evolution of the co-authorship patterns within a sample of 12 Iberoamerican countries (responsible for 98% of the total regional publications between 1973 and 2010) with a group of 46 other different nations. We show that the scientific co-authorship among countries follows a power-law and behaves as a self-organizing scale-free network, where each country appears as a node and each co-publication as a link. We develop a mathematical model to study the temporal evolution of co-authorship networks, based on a preferential attachment strategy and we show that the number of co-publications among countries grows quadraticly against time. We empirically determine the quadratic growth constants for 352 different co-authorship networks within the period 1973-2006. We corroborate that the connectivity of Iberoamerican countries with larger scientific networks (hubs) is growing faster than that of other less connected countries. We determine the dates, t0, at which the co-authorship connectivities trigger the self-organizing scale-free network for each of the 352 cases. We find that the latter follows a normal distribution around year 1981.4 ± 2.2 and we connect this effect with a brain-drain process generated during the previous decade. We show how the number of co-publications Pki(t) between country k and country i, against the coupling growth-coefficients aki, follows a power-law mathematical relation. We develop a methodology to use the empirically determined growth constants for each co-authorship network to predict changes in the relative intensity of cooperation among countries and we test its predictions for the period 2007-2010. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on the science and technology policies. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC5-06-2014 | Award Amount: 6.91M | Year: 2015
AQUACROSS aims to support EU efforts to enhance the resilience and stop the loss of biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems as well as to ensure the ongoing and future provision of aquatic ecosystem services. It focuses on advancing the knowledge base and application of the ecosystem-based management concept for aquatic ecosystems by developing cost effective measures and integrated management practices. AQUACROSS considers the EU policy framework (i.e. goals, concepts, time frames) for aquatic ecosystems and builds on knowledge stemming from different sources (i.e. WISE, BISE, Member State reporting, modelling) to develop innovative management tools, concepts, and business models (i.e. indicators, maps, ecosystem assessments, participatory approaches, mechanisms for promoting the delivery of ecosystem services) for aquatic ecosystems at various scales. It thereby provides an unprecedented effort to unify policy concepts, knowledge, and management concepts of freshwater, coastal, and marine ecosystems to support the cost-effective achievement of the targets set out by the EU 2020 Biodiversity Strategy.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EINFRA-5-2015 | Award Amount: 4.07M | Year: 2015
Materials are crucial to scientific and technological advances and industrial competitiveness, and to tackle key societal challenges - from energy and environment to health care, information and communications, manufacturing, safety and transportation. The current accuracy and predictive power of materials simulations allow a paradigm shift for computational design and discovery, in which massive computing efforts can be launched to identify novel materials with improved properties and performance; behaviour of ever-increasing complexity can be addressed; sharing of data and work-flows accelerates synergies and empowers the science of big-data; and services can be provided in the form of data, codes, expertise, turnkey solutions, and a liquid market of computational resources. Europe has the human resources, track record and infrastructure to be worldwide leader in this field, and we want to create a CoE in materials modelling, simulations, and design to endow our researchers and innovators with powerful new instruments to address the key scientific, industrial and societal challenges that require novel materials. This CoE will be a user-focused, thematic effort supporting the needs and the vision of all our core communities: domain scientists, software scientists and vendors, end-users in industry and in academic research, and high-performance computing centres. The proposal is structured along two core actions: (1) Community codes, their capabilities and reliability; provenance, preservation and sharing of data and work-flows; the ecosystem that integrates capabilities; and hardware support and transition to exascale architectures. (2) Integrating, training, and providing services to our core communities, while developing and implementing a model for sustainability, with the core benefit of propelling materials simulations in the practice of scientific research and industrial innovation.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: BG-13-2014 | Award Amount: 3.49M | Year: 2015
The overarching goals of the Sea Change project are to bring about a fundamental Sea Change in the way European citizens view their relationship with the sea, by empowering them as Ocean Literate citizens - to take direct and sustainable action towards healthy seas and ocean, healthy communities and ultimately - a healthy planet. Key objectives of Sea Change are to: Compile an in-depth review of the links between Seas and Ocean and Human health based on latest research knowledge outputs Build upon the latest social research on citizen and stakeholder attitudes, perceptions and values to help design and implement successful mobilisation activities focused on education, community, governance actors and directly targeted at citizens. marine education Build upon significant work to date, adopting best practice and embedding Ocean Literacy across established strategic initiatives and networks in order to help maximise impact and ensure sustainability Ensure that efforts to sustain an Ocean Literate society in Europe continue beyond the life of Sea Change through codes of good practice, public campaigns and other ongoing community activities. Ensure that all activities of Sea Change are carefully monitored and evaluated to ensure maximum sustainability, effectiveness and efficiency Ensure Knowledge exchange with transatlantic partners to bring about a global approach to protecting the planets shared seas and ocean. The objectives will be achieved by a closely interlinked programme. Sea Change includes a mobilisation phase engaging with citizens, formal education and policy actors. Crucially the legacy of Sea Change, including continuing knowledge sharing with North America, are embedded within the project.