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Benli B.,United Nations Development Programme UNDP | Bruggeman A.,The Cyprus Institute | Oweis T.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | Ustun H.,International Agricultural Training Center
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering | Year: 2010

Reliable estimates of evapotranspiration are essential for irrigation and water resources planning and management. Although several methods are available for computing reference evapotranspiration (ETo), the provision of complete and accurate climate data is often a problem. Therefore, weighing lysimeter data from a semiarid highland environment were used to evaluate the performance of six commonly used reference evapotranspiration estimation methods with different data requirements (Penman-Monteith-FAO56, Priestley-Taylor, Radiation-FAO24, Hargreaves, Blaney-Criddle, Class A pan). The lysimeter experiments were conducted at Ankara Research Institute of Rural Services in Turkey, during the April-October cropping seasons of the years 2000-2002. The average ETo for the three seasons, computed from the lysimeter data, was 964 mm. The Penman-Monteith-FAO56 method was also evaluated for cases where relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, or all three parameters would be missing. This resulted in a total of 10 different methods. The RMS errors (RMSE) and index of agreement for the daily data and the monthly averages as well as the mean absolute error (MAE) for the seasonal totals were computed to compare these methods. The methods were ranked based on the sum of the ranks for all five evaluation criteria. The Penman-Montheith-FAO56 method with the full data set, with replacement of wind speed, and with replacement of relative humidity took the top three spots, with MAEs for the seasonal totals ranging between 40 and 70 mm. The Hargreaves method came in fourth (MAE 54 mm), followed by the Penman-Montheith-FAO56 method with replacement of all three parameters (MAE 57 mm). The RMSE for the monthly average ETo was 0.43 and 0.50 mm{dot operator}days-1 for the Penman-Monteith-FAO56 without and with replacement of all three parameters and 0.48 mm{dot operator}days-1 for Hargreaves. Thus, if only temperature data would be available, the much easier to use Hargreaves method would be preferred above the Penman-Montheith-FAO56 equation with replacement of humidity, radiation, and wind speed data, for this semiarid highland environment. © 2010 ASCE. Source

Nkem J.N.,United Nations Development Programme UNDP | Somorin O.A.,Center for International Forestry Research | Somorin O.A.,Wageningen University | Jum C.,Center for International Forestry Research | And 3 more authors.
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2013

The livelihood strategies of indigenous communities in the Congo Basin are inseparable from the forests, following their use of forest ecosystem goods and services (FEGS). Climate change is expected to exert impacts on the forest and its ability to provide FEGS. Thus, human livelihoods that depend on these FEGS are intricately vulnerable to climate impacts. Using the livelihood strategies of the two main forest indigenous groups; the Bantus and Pygmies, of the high forest zone of southern Cameroon; this paper examines the nature and pattern of their vulnerability to different climate risks as well as highlights how place of settlement in the forest contributes to the vulnerability of people in forest systems. Forests provide different capitals as FEGS and make direct and indirect contributions to livelihoods which are exploited differently by the two indigenous groups. The results show that vulnerability of forest communities is structured by lifestyle, culture and the livelihood strategies employed which are largely shaped by the place of settlement in the forest. The Pygmies living within the forests are engaged in nomadic gathering and foraging of non-timber forest resources. The Bantus prefer forest margins and are mostly preoccupied with sedentary farming, using the forest as additional livelihood opportunity. The contrasting lifestyles have implications on their vulnerability and adaptation to climate impacts which need to be taken into considerations in planning and implementation of national climate change adaptation strategies. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Deuba K.,Karolinska Institutet | Ekstrom A.M.,Karolinska Institutet | Ekstrom A.M.,Karolinska University Hospital | Shrestha R.,Pokhara University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are marginalized, hidden, underserved and at high risk for HIV in Nepal. We examined the association between MSM sub-populations, psychosocial health problems and support, access to prevention and non-use of condoms. Methods: Between September-November of 2010, a cross-sectional survey on HIV-related risk behavior was performed across Nepal through snowball sampling facilitated by non-governmental organizations, recruiting 339 MSM, age 15 or older. The primary outcomes were: (a) non-use of condoms at least once in last three anal sex encounters with men and (b) non-use of condoms with women in the last encounter. The secondary outcome was participation in HIV prevention interventions in the past year. Results: Among the 339 MSM interviewed, 78% did not use condoms at their last anal sex with another man, 35% did not use condoms in their last sex with a woman, 70% had experienced violence in the last 12 months, 61% were experiencing depression and 47% had thought of committing suicide. After adjustment for age, religion, marital status, and MSM subpopulations (bisexual, ta, meti, gay), non-use of condoms at last anal sex with a man was significantly associated with non-participation in HIV interventions, experience of physical and sexual violence, depression, repeated suicidal thoughts, small social support network and being dissatisfied with social support. Depression was marginally associated with non-use of condoms with women. The findings suggest that among MSM who reported non-use of condoms at last anal sex, the ta subgroup and those lacking family acceptance were the least likely to have participated in any preventive interventions. Conclusions: MSM in Nepal have a prevalence of psychosocial health problems in turn associated with high risk behavior for HIV. Future HIV prevention efforts targeting MSM in Nepal should cover all MSM subpopulations and prioritize psychosocial health interventions. © 2013 Deuba et al. Source

Garniati L.,Robert Gordon University | Owen A.,Robert Gordon University | Kruijsen J.,Robert Gordon University | Ishadamy Y.,The Green Office | Wibisono I.,United Nations Development Programme UNDP
Sustainable Cities and Society | Year: 2014

Vulnerable societies are communities which are susceptible to damage when exposed to recurring triggers of natural disaster and/or socio-political conflicts, due to their geospatial and economic characteristics. It is proposed that additionally, access to sustainable energy influences the vulnerability of societies and vice versa. Although technological solutions exist, it is not sufficient to ensure access to sustainable energy systems. Political will and commitment has been identified as the corresponding measure. However, policy needs to know what it needs to do, thereby requiring the technical know-how and managerial capabilities in selecting the most appropriate energy generation, distribution, and utilisation technology for a given set of social, political, environmental, and economic circumstances. Hence, there is a clear need for technocrats and politicians to work on the same platform for a sustainable energy framework, more clearly so in the case of vulnerable societies. This paper aims to bridge the gap in theoretical and applied sustainable energy policies by constructing an interface between appropriate technology and energy policies, particularly within the context of vulnerable societies. Integration of historical perspectives, cultural standpoints, and local knowledge into policymaking and institutional development, directed towards technological independence, has been identified as the main foundation to this interface. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Bele M.Y.,Center for International Forestry Research | Somorin O.,Center for International Forestry Research | Somorin O.,Wageningen University | Sonwa D.J.,Center for International Forestry Research | And 3 more authors.
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2011

Nowadays, adaptation has become a key focus of the scientific and policy-making communities and is a major area of discussion in the multilateral climate change process. As climate change is projected to hit the poorest the hardest, it is especially important for developing countries to pay particular attention to the management of natural resources and agricultural activities. In most of these countries such as Cameroon, forest can play important role in achieving broader climate change adaptation goals. However, forest generally receives very little attention in national development programme and strategies such as policy dialogues on climate change and poverty reduction strategies. Using a qualitative approach to data collection through content analysis of relevant Cameroon policy documents, the integration of climate change adaptation was explored and the level of attention given to forests for adaptation analysed. Results indicate that, with the exception of the First National Communication to UNFCCC that focused mostly on mitigation and related issues, current policy documents in Cameroon are void of tangible reference to climate change, and hence failing in drawing the relevance of forest in sheltering populations from the many projected impacts of climate change. Policies related to forest rely on a generalized concept of sustainable forest management and do not identify the specific changes that need to be incorporated into management strategies and policies towards achieving adaptation. The strategies and recommendations made in those documents only serve to improve understanding of Cameroon natural resources and add resilience to the natural systems in coping with anthropogenic stresses. The paper draws attention to the need to address the constraints of lack of awareness and poor flow of information on the potentials of forests for climate change adaptation. It highlights the need for integrating forest for adaptation into national development programmes and strategies, and recommends a review of the existing environmental legislations and their implications on poverty reduction strategy and adaptation to climate change. © 2010 The Author(s). Source

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