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Glemarec Y.,United Nations Development Programme
Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy | Year: 2010

In the absence of a significant reduction in global emissions from current levels between now and 2050, global temperatures could rise by 4 °C, and possibly 6 °C by 2100. The world now has 100-150 months to dramatically change the world's energy supply trajectory and limit temperature rise to a "safe" 2 °C. The sums involved in a shift to a low-carbon economy are daunting but not impossible to achieve. Global capital markets, representing $178 trillion in financial assets, have the size and depth to rise up to the investment challenge. Rather than a problem of capital generation, the key challenge of financing the transition toward a low-carbon society is to redirect existing and planned capital flows from traditional high- to low-carbon climate resilient investments. Over the past few years, the international community has developed a number of public- and market-based instruments to shift investments from fossil fuels to more climate-friendly alternatives. As a result, investments in the sustainable energy market have grown from $22 billion in 2002 to $155 billion in 2008. They could reach $400-500 billion by 2020. Unfortunately, only a limited number of developing countries are benefiting from these new financing opportunities, as their markets have up until now failed to attract green investments. Contrary to a widespread view that climate change negotiations and efforts should focus on the largest greenhouse gas emitting countries, this paper argues that a failure to provide fair access to climate finance to all developing countries would have severe political, financial, and climate change consequences. Developing the capacity of low income countries to create conditions that enable markets and private investment flows to address pressing environmental problems is a key priority to finance the transition toward a low-carbon society. This paper proposes a novel country-driven, multistakeholder climate finance framework to assist developing countries to scale-up efforts to address climate change. The framework is built on four mechanisms at the country level: formulation of low carbon, climate resilient strategies-to bring about bottom-up national ownership, incorporate human development goals, and take a long-term outlook; financial and technical support platforms-to catalyze capital from businesses and households; nationally appropriate mitigation action/national adaptation plan-type instruments-to bring about balanced access to international public finance; coordinated implementation and monitoring, reporting, and verification systems-to bring about long-term, efficient results. © 2010 American Institute of Physics. Source

BACKGROUND: Noncommunicable diseases are a health and development challenge. Pacific Island countries are heavily affected by NCDs, with diabetes and obesity rates among the highest in the world. Trade is one of multiple structural drivers of NCDs in the Pacific, but country-level data linking trade, diets and NCD risk factors are scarce. We attempted to illustrate these links in five countries. The study had three objectives: generate cross-country profiles of food consumption and expenditure patterns; highlight the main 'unhealthy' food imports in each country to inform targeted policymaking; and demonstrate the potential of HCES data to analyze links between trade, diets and NCD risk factors, such as obesity.METHODS: We used two types of data: obesity rates as reported by WHO and aggregated household-level food expenditure and consumption from Household Income and Expenditure Survey reports. We classified foods in HIES data into four categories: imported/local, 'unhealthy'/'healthy', nontraditional/traditional, processed/unprocessed. We generated cross-country profiles and cross-country regressions to examine the relationships between imported foods and unhealthy foods, and between imported foods and obesity.RESULTS: Expenditure on imported foods was considerable in all countries but varied across countries, with highest values in Kiribati (53%) and Tonga (52%) and lowest values in Solomon Islands and Vanuatu (30%). Rice and sugar accounted for significant amounts of imported foods in terms of expenditure and calories, ranking among the top 3 foods in most countries. We found significant or near-significant associations in expenditure and caloric intake between 'unhealthy' and imported foods as well as between imported foods and obesity, though inferences based on these associations should be made carefully due to data constraints.CONCLUSIONS: While additional research is needed, this study supports previous findings on trade as a structural driver of NCD risk and identifies the top imported foods that could serve as policy targets. Moreover, this analysis is proof-of-concept that the methodology is a cost-effective way for countries to use existing data to generate policy-relevant evidence on links between trade and NCDs. We believe that the methodology is replicable to other countries globally. A user-friendly Excel tool is available upon request to assist such analyses. Source

Alleyne G.,Pan American Health Organization | Binagwaho A.,Ministry of Health | Binagwaho A.,Harvard University | Haines A.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 4 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2013

The post-2015 development agenda will build on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), in which health is a core component. This agenda will focus on human development, incorporate the components of the Millennium Declaration, and will be made sustainable by support from the social, economic, and environmental domains of activity, represented graphically as the strands of a triple helix. The approaches to prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have been elaborated in the political declaration of the UN high-level meeting on NCDs and governments have adopted a goal of 25% reduction in relative mortality from NCDs by 2025 (the 25 by 25 goal), but a strong movement is needed based on the evidence already available, enhanced by effective partnerships, and with political support to ensure that NCDs are embedded in the post-2015 human development agenda. NCDs should be embedded in the post-2015 development agenda, since they are leading causes of death and disability, have a negative effect on health, and, through their effect on the societal, economic, and the environmental domains, impair the sustainability of development. Some drivers of unsustainable development, such as the transport, food and agriculture, and energy sectors, also increase the risk of NCDs. Source

Remme M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Vassall A.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Lutz B.,United Nations Development Programme | Luna J.,Columbia University | Watts C.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
AIDS | Year: 2014

Objective: Structural interventions can reduce HIVvulnerability.However, HIV-specific budgeting, based on HIV-specific outcomes alone, could lead to the undervaluation of investments in such interventions and suboptimal resource allocation.Weinvestigate this hypothesis by examining the consequences of alternative financing approaches. Methods: We compare three approaches for deciding whether to finance a structural intervention to keep adolescent girls in school in Malawi. In the first, HIV and non-HIV budget holders participate in a cross-sectoral cost-benefit analysis and fund the intervention if the benefits outweigh the costs. In the second silo approach, each budget holder considers the cost-effectiveness of the intervention in terms of their own objectives and funds the intervention on the basis of their sector-specific thresholds of what is cost-effective or not. In the third cofinancing approach, budget holders use costeffectiveness analysis to determine how much they would be willing to contribute towards the intervention, provided that other sectors are willing to pay for the remaining costs. In addition, we explore approaches for determining the HIV share in the cofinancing scenario. Results: We find that efficient structural interventions may be less likely to be prioritized, financed and taken to scale where sectors evaluate their options in isolation. A cofinancing approach minimizes welfare loss and could be incorporated in a sector budgeting perspective. Conclusion: Structural interventions may be underimplemented and their cross-sectoral benefits foregone. Cofinancing provides an opportunity for multiple HIV, health and development objectives to be achieved simultaneously, but will require effective crosssectoral coordination mechanisms for planning, implementation and financing. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Glemarec Y.,United Nations Development Programme
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

This paper examines the role of public instruments in promoting private finance to achieve off-grid sustainable energy access. Renewable energy technologies are increasingly becoming the cheapest solutions for off-grid energy access. The dramatic uptake of mobile phones in developing countries shows how quickly decentralized services can develop on a commercial basis under the right conditions, and raises the prospect that private finance could also drive decentralized energy access for the poor. Indeed, there are already a number of instances of clean energy solutions - such as solar portable lights, household biogas units or solar home systems - that have managed to scale-up through leveraging private finance. However, the experience gained from first-generation market development projects show that, in almost all cases, significant public resources have been necessary to increase the affordability of clean energy technologies, provide access to financing for the poor, and remove non-economic barriers. Such public interventions may be funded by international public finance, domestic budgets and carbon finance. Despite mounting fiscal constraints facing governments worldwide, the emergence of new sources of climate finance and the political momentum in support of energy subsidy reforms, as well as new programming modalities, offer opportunities to leverage additional resources to achieve universal energy access by 2030. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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