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Kurukulasuriya P.,United Nations Development Program
Environment and Development Economics | Year: 2012

This study predicts the impact of climate change on African agriculture. We use a generalized linear model (GLM) framework to estimate the relationship between the proportion of various Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZs) in a district and climate. Using three climate scenarios, we project how climate change will cause AEZs to shift, causing changes in acreage and net revenue per hectare of cropland. Our results predict that Africa will suffer heavy annual welfare losses by 2070-2100, ranging between US$14 billion and US$70 billion, depending on the climate scenario and cropland measure considered. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2012.

Diouf D.,Enda Sante | Drame F.M.,University Gaston Berger | Ndaw M.,Enda Sante | Traore C.,United Nations Development Program | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV in Senegal, with a prevalence of 21.5%. In December 2008, nine male HIV prevention workers were imprisoned for "acts against nature" prohibited by Senegalese law. This qualitative study assessed the impact of these arrests on HIV prevention efforts. A purposive sample of MSM in six regions of Senegal was recruited by network referral. 26 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 6 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in July-August 2009. 14 key informants were also interviewed. All participants reported pervasive fear and hiding among MSM as a result of the December 2008 arrests and publicity. Service providers suspended HIV prevention work with MSM out of fear for their own safety. Those who continued to provide services noticed a sharp decline in MSM participation. An effective response to the HIV epidemic in Senegal should include active work to decrease enforcement of this law. © 2011 Poteat et al.

Logie C.,University of Toronto | Adams D.,Peace Corps Lesotho | Lebona J.,Matrix | Letsie P.,United Nations Development Program
Culture, Health and Sexuality | Year: 2014

Despite the high prevalence of HIV and STIs among women in Africa and the growing literature on HIV and STIs among women who have sex with women, research on the sexual health of women who have sex with women in Africa is scant. This study used mixed methods to describe sexual identity, practices and health among women who have sex with women in Lesotho. Most respondents (48%) described themselves as lesbian, 29% as bisexual and 23% as heterosexual. Almost half (45%) had disclosed their same-sex attraction to family, but only 25% had done so with healthcare workers. A total of 8% reported having HIV. Self-reported HIV was associated with having three or more male partners, having male and female partners at the same time and having a history of STIs. Gender norms, the criminalisation of homosexuality, varied knowledge of, and access to, safer-sex strategies, and mixed experiences of HIV/STI testing and sexual healthcare provided social and structural contexts for HIV- and STI-related vulnerability. © 2014 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

PubMed | UNC Project Malawi, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, United Nations Development Program, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Kamuzu Central Hospital
Type: | Journal: Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2015

Clinical reports of multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are scarce despite high prevalence of HIV and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Our objective is to describe characteristics and survival for HIV-associated MCD patients in Malawi. To our knowledge, this is the first HIV-associated MCD case series from the region.We describe HIV-positive patients with MCD in Lilongwe, and compare them to HIV-associated lymph node Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients treated at our centre. All patients were enrolled into a prospective longitudinal cohort study at a national teaching hospital and cancer referral centre serving half of Malawis 16 million people. We included adult patients18 years of age with HIV-associated MCD (n=6), lymph node KS (n=5) or NHL (n=31) enrolled between 1 June 2013 and 31 January 2015.MCD patients had a median age of 42.4 years (range 37.2-51.8). All had diffuse lymphadenopathy and five had hepatosplenomegaly. Concurrent KS was present for one MCD patient, and four had performance status 3. MCD patients had lower median haemoglobin (6.4 g/dL, range 3.6-9.3) than KS (11.0 g/dL, range 9.1-12.0, p=0.011) or NHL (11.2 g/dL, range 4.5-15.1, p=0.0007). Median serum albumin was also lower for MCD (2.1 g/dL, range 1.7-3.2) than KS (3.7 g/dL, range 3.2-3.9, p=0.013) or NHL (3.4 g/dL, range 1.8-4.8, p=0.003). All six MCD patients were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with median CD4 count 208 cells/L (range 108-1146), and all with HIV RNA <400 copies/mL. Most KS and NHL patients were also on ART, although ART duration was longer for MCD (56.4 months, range 18.2-105.3) than KS (14.2 months, range 6.8-21.9, p=0.039) or NHL (13.8 months, range 0.2-98.8, p=0.017). Survival was poorer for MCD patients than lymph node KS or NHL.HIV-associated MCD occurs in Malawi, is diagnosed late and is associated with high mortality. Improvements in awareness, diagnostic facilities, treatment and supportive care are needed to address this likely under-recognized public health problem in SSA.

Pinho R.C.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | Miller R.P.,United Nations Development Program | Alfaia S.S.,National Institute of Amazonian Research
Applied and Environmental Soil Science | Year: 2012

This paper discusses the effects of trees on soil fertility, with a focus on agricultural systems in Amazonia. Relevant literature concerning the effects of trees on soil physical and chemical properties in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions is reviewed, covering both natural ecosystems and agroecosystems. Soil carbon, in the form of organic matter, is considered as an indicator of biological activity as well as in relation to policy issues such as carbon sequestration and climate change. In the case of tropical soils and Amazonia, information on the effects of trees on soils is discussed in the context of traditional agriculture systems, as well as in regard to the development of more sustainable agricultural alternatives for the region. Lastly, attention is given to a case study in the savanna region of Roraima, northern Brazil, where a chronosequence of indigenous homegarden agroforestry systems showed clear effects of management practices involving trees on soil fertility. The use of diverse tree species and other practices employed in agroforestry systems can represent alternative forms of increasing soil fertility and maintaining agricultural production, with important practical applications for the sustainability of tropical agriculture. © 2012 Rachel C. Pinho et al.

News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: cleantechnica.com

70% of people living in sub-Saharan Africa have no access to a conventional electrical grid. Even if they did, the service is often interrupted by a variety of factors. Now, Community Energy Social Enterprises Limited, a Nigerian company, and Renewvia Energy Corporation, an American firm, have signed a Memorandum of Understanding to provide solar power to 25 communities across Nigeria using local microgrids. The communities are located in the Nigerian states of  Bayelsa, Ondo, Ogun, and Osun. The microgrids are expected to be operational by the end of this year and have a total capacity of 10 megawatts. Clay Taber, managing director of Renewvia, says the microgrids will include PV panels, string inverters, aluminium racking, and energy storage backup power. He adds that Renewvia and CESEL will sell electricity to microgrid customers through Kilowatts, a “pay as you go” microfinance company. “The competitiveness of the system helps to ensure payment, as the project would provide consistent and reliable power at a less expensive price than current rural power generation by diesel,” he says.  Most customers send about $6 a month for electricity from a solar microgrid. The project is supported by Power Africa, a US energy project initiated in 2013 to assist African countries in accessing energy. CESEL is a private Nigerian company that has led the community engagement for 6 operational microgrid projects in Nigeria that have received funding through the Nigeria Bank of Industry and United Nations Development Program. Renewvia is a private US renewable energy developer and solar power plant operator established in 2009. Renewvia specializes in providing minigrid and solar energy solutions for residential, commercial, and utility-scale applications. Solar energy in Africa is not used to power air conditioning, electric cars, or hot tubs. It is used to provide LED lighting at night so people continue to do business after the sun sets, so the streets are lit to deter crime, and so school children can do their schoolwork at night without breathing toxic fumes from kerosene lanterns. One solar light can transform the life of a family that has never known the wonders of electrical energy. Solar power can also be used to charge cell phones, which helps people connect with each other and helps the development of cohesive communities. Akon: Words of Wisdom, Importance of Solar, Call to Climate Action… (Exclusive Video Interview) Buy a cool T-shirt or mug in the CleanTechnica store!   Keep up to date with all the hottest cleantech news by subscribing to our (free) cleantech daily newsletter or weekly newsletter, or keep an eye on sector-specific news by getting our (also free) solar energy newsletter, electric vehicle newsletter, or wind energy newsletter.

Jawad D.,Notre Dame University - Louaize | Sayed L.E.,United Nations Development Program
T and DI Congress 2014: Planes, Trains, and Automobiles - Proceedings of the 2nd Transportation and Development Institute Congress | Year: 2014

The transparent practice of involving stakeholders in the decision making process can largely aid in eliminating opposition against sensitive and highly-debated transportation projects. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), in particular, is able to consider opposing points of view of multiple stakeholders. This paper presents the research done in the realm of MCDA with the objective of identifying the appropriate technique within MCDA process that can best aid in building consensus among stakeholders. The work is done by examining a number of widespread techniques used at each MCDA step through its application to real-case study. Assessing stakeholders' perceptions of each of these techniques is conducted throughout the analysis process. After presenting the case study decision context and the application of the MCDA techniques results in detail, the paper concludes with matrix recommendations for building consensus via MCDA. The research finds weight elicitation via pairwise comparison, scaling via modeling and utility function, and amalgamation via the probabilistic impact index method perform best with regards to providing confidence and building consensus among stakeholders. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Sonwa D.J.,Center for International Forestry Research | Somorin O.A.,Center for International Forestry Research | Somorin O.A.,Wageningen University | Jum C.,Center for International Forestry Research | And 2 more authors.
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2012

In Cameroon and elsewhere in the Congo Basin, the majority of rural households and a large proportion of urban households depend on plant and animal products from the forests to meet their nutritional, energy, cultural and medicinal needs. This paper explores the likely impacts of climate-induced changes on the provisioning of forest ecosystem goods and services and its effect on the economic and social well-being of the society, including the national economy and the livelihoods of forest-dependent people. The analysis focuses on four identified vulnerable sectors - food (NTFPs), energy (fuelwood), health (medicinal plants) and water (freshwater) through a multi-stakeholder dialog at national and regional levels. We use a vulnerability assessment framework by combining the elements of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity to conceptualize vulnerability in these sectors. The identified sectors in relation to the forest ecosystem are discussed in view of providing an understanding of the sector's potential adaptive capacities for policy intervention. Our analysis presents the possible implications of the vulnerability of these sectors for planning local and national adaptation strategies. Local and national adaptive capacities to respond to climate impacts in the forest sectors includes: reducing poverty, enhancing food security, water availability, combating land degradation and reducing loss of biological diversity. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Weir T.,University of The South Pacific | Virani Z.,United Nations Development Program
Climate and Development | Year: 2011

Pacific Island countries are demonstrably vulnerable to the risks of climate change, disasters and conflict. This article outlines the conceptual links between these risks, briefly describes how each of the risks operates in the Pacific Islands, and goes on to demonstrate the interaction of climate change, disasters and potential for conflict in the Pacific Islands, by applying a new conceptual framework to some illustrative case studies. The case studies include relocation after the Gizo earthquake, 'environmental refugees' from sea level rise, and aggravation of the social issues of urbanization and unemployed youth by climate change. Fortunately, none of these cases has yet crossed the threshold into violent conflict, even though relocation of an affected community onto someone else's land is a particularly sensitive issue in the Pacific Islands. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Aoun N.S.,University of Tokyo | Harajli H.A.,United Nations Development Program | Queffeulou P.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea
Renewable Energy | Year: 2013

The present work is the first attempt to methodologically assess the wave power prospects off the coast of Lebanon. Working around 1.5 years of buoy data, measurements for the significant wave height and wave period were inputted to establish a joint frequency table that was related to power matrixes of three selected wave energy converters. The spatial and temporal representability of the analysis was extended through assessing altimeter data of Hs over 20 years and for three points off the coast of Lebanon; southern Lebanon, buoy location off the coast of Beirut, and northern Lebanon. The altimeter data indicated that Hs values as measured through the buoy is within 1 standard deviation of the offshore regional mean, however adopting the regional mean value of Hs would more than double the potential power from waves from 4.6 kW/m to 9.8 kW/m. This puts the wave resources in the lower end of what is 'technically viable' and therefore it can be concluded that, given the current state of technology, wave power cannot contribute to the 12% target of renewable energy in the Lebanese energy mix by 2020. A re-evaluation of the wave power prospects post-2020, based on an actual and more robust data collection system, is recommended. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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