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Pinho R.C.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | Miller R.P.,United Nations Development Program | Alfaia S.S.,National Institute of Amazonian Research
Applied and Environmental Soil Science | Year: 2012

This paper discusses the effects of trees on soil fertility, with a focus on agricultural systems in Amazonia. Relevant literature concerning the effects of trees on soil physical and chemical properties in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions is reviewed, covering both natural ecosystems and agroecosystems. Soil carbon, in the form of organic matter, is considered as an indicator of biological activity as well as in relation to policy issues such as carbon sequestration and climate change. In the case of tropical soils and Amazonia, information on the effects of trees on soils is discussed in the context of traditional agriculture systems, as well as in regard to the development of more sustainable agricultural alternatives for the region. Lastly, attention is given to a case study in the savanna region of Roraima, northern Brazil, where a chronosequence of indigenous homegarden agroforestry systems showed clear effects of management practices involving trees on soil fertility. The use of diverse tree species and other practices employed in agroforestry systems can represent alternative forms of increasing soil fertility and maintaining agricultural production, with important practical applications for the sustainability of tropical agriculture. © 2012 Rachel C. Pinho et al.

Jawad D.,Notre Dame University - Louaize | Sayed L.E.,United Nations Development Program
T and DI Congress 2014: Planes, Trains, and Automobiles - Proceedings of the 2nd Transportation and Development Institute Congress | Year: 2014

The transparent practice of involving stakeholders in the decision making process can largely aid in eliminating opposition against sensitive and highly-debated transportation projects. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), in particular, is able to consider opposing points of view of multiple stakeholders. This paper presents the research done in the realm of MCDA with the objective of identifying the appropriate technique within MCDA process that can best aid in building consensus among stakeholders. The work is done by examining a number of widespread techniques used at each MCDA step through its application to real-case study. Assessing stakeholders' perceptions of each of these techniques is conducted throughout the analysis process. After presenting the case study decision context and the application of the MCDA techniques results in detail, the paper concludes with matrix recommendations for building consensus via MCDA. The research finds weight elicitation via pairwise comparison, scaling via modeling and utility function, and amalgamation via the probabilistic impact index method perform best with regards to providing confidence and building consensus among stakeholders. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Sonwa D.J.,Center for International Forestry Research | Somorin O.A.,Center for International Forestry Research | Somorin O.A.,Wageningen University | Jum C.,Center for International Forestry Research | And 2 more authors.
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2012

In Cameroon and elsewhere in the Congo Basin, the majority of rural households and a large proportion of urban households depend on plant and animal products from the forests to meet their nutritional, energy, cultural and medicinal needs. This paper explores the likely impacts of climate-induced changes on the provisioning of forest ecosystem goods and services and its effect on the economic and social well-being of the society, including the national economy and the livelihoods of forest-dependent people. The analysis focuses on four identified vulnerable sectors - food (NTFPs), energy (fuelwood), health (medicinal plants) and water (freshwater) through a multi-stakeholder dialog at national and regional levels. We use a vulnerability assessment framework by combining the elements of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity to conceptualize vulnerability in these sectors. The identified sectors in relation to the forest ecosystem are discussed in view of providing an understanding of the sector's potential adaptive capacities for policy intervention. Our analysis presents the possible implications of the vulnerability of these sectors for planning local and national adaptation strategies. Local and national adaptive capacities to respond to climate impacts in the forest sectors includes: reducing poverty, enhancing food security, water availability, combating land degradation and reducing loss of biological diversity. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Logie C.,University of Toronto | Adams D.,Peace Corps Lesotho | Lebona J.,Matrix | Letsie P.,United Nations Development Program
Culture, Health and Sexuality | Year: 2014

Despite the high prevalence of HIV and STIs among women in Africa and the growing literature on HIV and STIs among women who have sex with women, research on the sexual health of women who have sex with women in Africa is scant. This study used mixed methods to describe sexual identity, practices and health among women who have sex with women in Lesotho. Most respondents (48%) described themselves as lesbian, 29% as bisexual and 23% as heterosexual. Almost half (45%) had disclosed their same-sex attraction to family, but only 25% had done so with healthcare workers. A total of 8% reported having HIV. Self-reported HIV was associated with having three or more male partners, having male and female partners at the same time and having a history of STIs. Gender norms, the criminalisation of homosexuality, varied knowledge of, and access to, safer-sex strategies, and mixed experiences of HIV/STI testing and sexual healthcare provided social and structural contexts for HIV- and STI-related vulnerability. © 2014 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Weir T.,University of The South Pacific | Virani Z.,United Nations Development Program
Climate and Development | Year: 2011

Pacific Island countries are demonstrably vulnerable to the risks of climate change, disasters and conflict. This article outlines the conceptual links between these risks, briefly describes how each of the risks operates in the Pacific Islands, and goes on to demonstrate the interaction of climate change, disasters and potential for conflict in the Pacific Islands, by applying a new conceptual framework to some illustrative case studies. The case studies include relocation after the Gizo earthquake, 'environmental refugees' from sea level rise, and aggravation of the social issues of urbanization and unemployed youth by climate change. Fortunately, none of these cases has yet crossed the threshold into violent conflict, even though relocation of an affected community onto someone else's land is a particularly sensitive issue in the Pacific Islands. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

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