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Scarth J.P.,A Quotient Bioresearch Ltd Company | Teale P.,A Quotient Bioresearch Ltd Company | Kuuranne T.,United Medix Laboratories Ltd
Drug Testing and Analysis | Year: 2011

A detailed understanding of equine drug metabolism is important for detection of drug abuse in horseracing and also in veterinary drug development and practice. To date, however, no comprehensive review of equine drug metabolism has been published. The majority of literature regarding equine drug metabolite profiles is derived from sports drug detection research and is generally targeted at detecting marker metabolites of drug abuse. However, the bulk of the literature on equine drug metabolism enzymology is derived from veterinary studies aimed at determining the molecular basis of metabolism. In this article, the phase 1 and 2 metabolisms of seven of the most important classes of drugs monitored in horseracing are reviewed, including: anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), β2-agonists, stimulants, sedatives/tranquilizers, local anesthetics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics (NSAIDS)/cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, and opioid analgesics. A summary of the literature relating to the enzymology of drug metabolism in this species is also be presented. The future of equine drug metabolism in the area of doping research will be influenced by several factors, including: a possible move towards the increased use of blood and other alternative testing matrices; the development of assays based on intact drug conjugates; the increasing threat of 'designer' and herbal- based products; advances in the use of in vitro technologies; the increased use of liquid-chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry; and the possibility of screening using 'omics' approaches. Also, the recent cloning of a range of equine cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes opens up the potential for carrying out more detailed mechanistic pharmacological and toxicological veterinary studies. In this article, the phase one and two metabolism of seven of the most important classes of drugs monitored in horseracing is reviewed. A summary of the literature relating to the enzymology of drug metabolism in this species is also presented. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..


Ojanpera I.,University of Helsinki | Kolmonen M.,University of Helsinki | Kolmonen M.,United Medix Laboratories Ltd | Pelander A.,University of Helsinki
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

Clinical and forensic toxicology and doping control deal with hundreds or thousands of drugs that may cause poisoning or are abused, are illicit, or are prohibited in sports. Rapid and reliable screening for all these compounds of different chemical and pharmaceutical nature, preferably in a single analytical method, is a substantial effort for analytical toxicologists. Combined chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques with standardised reference libraries have been most commonly used for the purpose. In the last ten years, the focus has shifted from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, because of progress in instrument technology and partly because of the polarity and low volatility of many new relevant substances. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), which enables accurate mass measurement at high resolving power, has recently evolved to the stage that is rapidly causing a shift from unit-resolution, quadrupole-dominated instrumentation. The main HRMS techniques today are time-of-flight mass spectrometry and Orbitrap Fourier-transform mass spectrometry. Both techniques enable a range of different drugscreening strategies that essentially rely on measuring a compound's or a fragment's mass with sufficiently high accuracy that its elemental composition can be determined directly. Accurate mass and isotopic pattern acts as a filter for confirming the identity of a compound or even identification of an unknown. High mass resolution is essential for improving confidence in accurate mass results in the analysis of complex biological samples. This review discusses recent applications of HRMS in analytical toxicology. © Springer-Verlag 2012.


Kutvonen H.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Kutvonen H.,United Medix Laboratories Ltd | Rajala P.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Carpen L.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Bomberg M.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2015

We investigated the N-utilizing bacterial community in anoxic brackish groundwater of the low and intermediate level nuclear waste repository cave in Olkiluoto, Finland, at 100 m depth using 15N-based stable isotope probing (SIP) and enrichment with 14/15N-ammonium or 14/15N-nitrate complemented with methane. Twenty-eight days of incubation at 12°C increased the concentration of bacterial 16S rRNA and nitrate reductase (narG) gene copies in the substrate amended microcosms simultaneously with a radical drop in the overall bacterial diversity and OTU richness. Hydrogenophaga/Malikia were enriched in all substrate amended microcosms and Methylobacter in the ammonium and ammonium+methane supplemented microcosms. Sulfuricurvum was especially abundant in the nitrate+methane treatment and the unamended incubation control. Membrane-bound nitrate reductase genes (narG) from Polarimonas sp. were detected in the original groundwater, while Burkholderia, Methylibium, and Pseudomonas narG genes were enriched due to substrate supplements. Identified amoA genes belonged to Nitrosomonas sp. 15N-SIP revealed that Burkholderiales and Rhizobiales clades belonging to the minority groups in the original groundwater used 15N from ammonium and nitrate as N source indicating an important ecological function of these bacteria, despite their low number, in the groundwater N cycle in Olkiluoto bedrock system. © 2015 Kutvonen, Rajala, Carpén and Bomberg.


Kuuranne T.,United Medix Laboratories Ltd | Saugy M.,University of Geneva | Baume N.,University of Geneva
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

In the fight against doping, steroid profiling is a powerful tool to detect drug misuse with endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids. To establish sensitive and reliable models, the factors influencing profiling should be recognised. We performed an extensive literature review of the multiple factors that could influence the quantitative levels and ratios of endogenous steroids in urine matrix. For a comprehensive and scientific evaluation of the urinary steroid profile, it is necessary to define the target analytes as well as testosterone metabolism. The two main confounding factors, that is, endogenous and exogenous factors, are detailed to show the complex process of quantifying the steroid profile within WADA-accredited laboratories. Technical aspects are also discussed as they could have a significant impact on the steroid profile, and thus the steroid module of the athlete biological passport (ABP). The different factors impacting the major components of the steroid profile must be understood to ensure scientifically sound interpretation through the Bayesian model of the ABP. Not only should the statistical data be considered but also the experts in the field must be consulted for successful implementation of the steroidal module.


Polkowska A.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Harjunpaa A.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Toikkanen S.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Lappalainen M.,University of Helsinki | And 5 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2012

The number of cases of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection detected by laboratory-based surveillance increased in Finland in late 2010. During 2011, the number of cases was four times higher than during the previous epidemic in 2005. The 2011 epidemic affected mostly school-age children. The increased number of cases was probably not due to changes in laboratory procedures, but public interest may have had an effect, since the number of Google queries followed closely the epidemic curve.

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