United Medix Laboratories Ltd

United, Finland

United Medix Laboratories Ltd

United, Finland
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Polkowska A.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Harjunpaa A.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Toikkanen S.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Lappalainen M.,University of Helsinki | And 5 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2012

The number of cases of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection detected by laboratory-based surveillance increased in Finland in late 2010. During 2011, the number of cases was four times higher than during the previous epidemic in 2005. The 2011 epidemic affected mostly school-age children. The increased number of cases was probably not due to changes in laboratory procedures, but public interest may have had an effect, since the number of Google queries followed closely the epidemic curve.


Kolmonen M.,University of Helsinki | Kolmonen M.,United Medix Laboratories Ltd. | Leinonen A.,United Medix Laboratories Ltd. | Kuuranne T.,United Medix Laboratories Ltd. | And 3 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

The use of plasma volume expanders (PVE), such as dextran (DEX) and hydroxyethyl starch (HES), is prohibited in sports. DEX is a naturally occurring glucose polymer, whereas HES is synthetically produced from amylopectin starch by substitution with hydroxyethyl groups. In doping control, the commonly applied enzymatic and colorimetric screening methods are lacking adequate specificity for DEX and HES. Also, gas chromatographic-mass spectrometic (GC-MS) screening methods have specificity issues with DEX. In addition, due to the nature of the target compounds, time-consuming derivatisation steps are required in GC-MS. Based on the high molecular weight of carbohydrate polymers excreted in urine after administration of DEX and HES, a screening method was developed involving size exclusion chromatography (SEC) combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). By using solely a SEC guard column as an analytical column allowed sufficient chromatographic resolution in a minimal amount of time and with reasonable repeatability (average RSD of 10%). Detector response was linear throughout the measurement range with R 2∈>∈0.99 for both analytes. Limits of detection were 100 and 250 μg mL -1 for DEX and HES, respectively. Ion suppression was found to be 52% at maximum. In-source collision-induced dissociation (ISCID) was used to produce characteristic fragments at a mass accuracy better than 2 mDa. The specificity of the SEC-ISCID-TOFMS method was demonstrated with 120 PVE negative doping control samples analyzed in parallel with a routine GC-MS screening method. In addition, seven urine samples from diabetic athletes, causing interpretation problems in routine GC-MS, showed here a definitely negative profile. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Kuuranne T.,United Medix Laboratories Ltd. | Saugy M.,University of Geneva | Baume N.,University of Geneva
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

In the fight against doping, steroid profiling is a powerful tool to detect drug misuse with endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids. To establish sensitive and reliable models, the factors influencing profiling should be recognised. We performed an extensive literature review of the multiple factors that could influence the quantitative levels and ratios of endogenous steroids in urine matrix. For a comprehensive and scientific evaluation of the urinary steroid profile, it is necessary to define the target analytes as well as testosterone metabolism. The two main confounding factors, that is, endogenous and exogenous factors, are detailed to show the complex process of quantifying the steroid profile within WADA-accredited laboratories. Technical aspects are also discussed as they could have a significant impact on the steroid profile, and thus the steroid module of the athlete biological passport (ABP). The different factors impacting the major components of the steroid profile must be understood to ensure scientifically sound interpretation through the Bayesian model of the ABP. Not only should the statistical data be considered but also the experts in the field must be consulted for successful implementation of the steroidal module.


Scarth J.P.,A Quotient Bioresearch Ltd Company | Teale P.,A Quotient Bioresearch Ltd Company | Kuuranne T.,United Medix Laboratories Ltd.
Drug Testing and Analysis | Year: 2011

A detailed understanding of equine drug metabolism is important for detection of drug abuse in horseracing and also in veterinary drug development and practice. To date, however, no comprehensive review of equine drug metabolism has been published. The majority of literature regarding equine drug metabolite profiles is derived from sports drug detection research and is generally targeted at detecting marker metabolites of drug abuse. However, the bulk of the literature on equine drug metabolism enzymology is derived from veterinary studies aimed at determining the molecular basis of metabolism. In this article, the phase 1 and 2 metabolisms of seven of the most important classes of drugs monitored in horseracing are reviewed, including: anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), β2-agonists, stimulants, sedatives/tranquilizers, local anesthetics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics (NSAIDS)/cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, and opioid analgesics. A summary of the literature relating to the enzymology of drug metabolism in this species is also be presented. The future of equine drug metabolism in the area of doping research will be influenced by several factors, including: a possible move towards the increased use of blood and other alternative testing matrices; the development of assays based on intact drug conjugates; the increasing threat of 'designer' and herbal- based products; advances in the use of in vitro technologies; the increased use of liquid-chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry; and the possibility of screening using 'omics' approaches. Also, the recent cloning of a range of equine cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes opens up the potential for carrying out more detailed mechanistic pharmacological and toxicological veterinary studies. In this article, the phase one and two metabolism of seven of the most important classes of drugs monitored in horseracing is reviewed. A summary of the literature relating to the enzymology of drug metabolism in this species is also presented. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..


Ojanpera I.,University of Helsinki | Kolmonen M.,University of Helsinki | Kolmonen M.,United Medix Laboratories Ltd. | Pelander A.,University of Helsinki
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

Clinical and forensic toxicology and doping control deal with hundreds or thousands of drugs that may cause poisoning or are abused, are illicit, or are prohibited in sports. Rapid and reliable screening for all these compounds of different chemical and pharmaceutical nature, preferably in a single analytical method, is a substantial effort for analytical toxicologists. Combined chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques with standardised reference libraries have been most commonly used for the purpose. In the last ten years, the focus has shifted from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, because of progress in instrument technology and partly because of the polarity and low volatility of many new relevant substances. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), which enables accurate mass measurement at high resolving power, has recently evolved to the stage that is rapidly causing a shift from unit-resolution, quadrupole-dominated instrumentation. The main HRMS techniques today are time-of-flight mass spectrometry and Orbitrap Fourier-transform mass spectrometry. Both techniques enable a range of different drugscreening strategies that essentially rely on measuring a compound's or a fragment's mass with sufficiently high accuracy that its elemental composition can be determined directly. Accurate mass and isotopic pattern acts as a filter for confirming the identity of a compound or even identification of an unknown. High mass resolution is essential for improving confidence in accurate mass results in the analysis of complex biological samples. This review discusses recent applications of HRMS in analytical toxicology. © Springer-Verlag 2012.


Hintikka L.,University of Helsinki | Haapala M.,University of Helsinki | Kuuranne T.,United Medix Laboratories Ltd. | Leinonen A.,United Medix Laboratories Ltd. | Kostiainen R.,University of Helsinki
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2013

A gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-μAPPI-MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis of anabolic androgenic steroids in urine as their trimethylsilyl derivatives. The method utilizes a heated nebulizer microchip in atmospheric pressure photoionization mode (μAPPI) with chlorobenzene as dopant, which provides high ionization efficiency by producing abundant radical cations with minimal fragmentation. The performance of GC-μAPPI-MS/MS was evaluated with respect to repeatability, linearity, linear range, and limit of detection (LOD). The results confirmed the potential of the method for doping control analysis of anabolic steroids. Repeatability (RSD<10%), linearity (R2≥0.996) and sensitivity (LODs 0.05-0.1ng/mL) were acceptable. Quantitative performance of the method was tested and compared with that of conventional GC-electron ionization-MS, and the results were in good agreement. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Hintikka L.,University of Helsinki | Haapala M.,University of Helsinki | Franssila S.,Aalto University | Kuuranne T.,United Medix Laboratories Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2010

Mass spectrometers equipped with atmospheric pressure ion sources (API-MS) have been designed to be interfaced with liquid chromatographs (LC) and have rarely been connected to gas chromatographs (GC). Recently, we introduced a heated nebulizer microchip and showed its potential to interface liquid microseparation techniques and GC with API-MS. This study demonstrates the feasibility of GC-microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-μAPPI-MS/MS) in the analysis of underivatized anabolic steroids in urine. The APPI microchip provides high ionization efficiency and produces abundant protonated molecules or molecular ions with minimal fragmentation. The feasibility of GC-μAPPI-MS/MS in the analysis of six selected anabolic steroids in urine samples was studied with respect to intra-batch repeatability, linearity, linear range, and limit of detection (LOD). The method showed good sensitivity (LODs 0.2-1 ng/mL), repeatability (relative standard deviation < 10%), and linearity (regression coefficient ≥ 0.9995) and, therefore, high potential for the analysis of anabolic steroids. Quantitative performance of the method was tested with two authentic urine samples, and the results were in good agreement with those obtained with conventional GC-electron ionization-MS after derivatization. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Kolmonen M.,University of Helsinki | Kolmonen M.,United Medix Laboratories Ltd. | Leinonen A.,United Medix Laboratories Ltd. | Kuuranne T.,United Medix Laboratories Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2010

A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HILIC-TOFMS) method for the quantification and confirmation of morphine (M), codeine (C), morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) and codeine-6-glucuronide (C6G) is presented. The method was validated in terms of specificity, selectivity, extraction recovery, accuracy, repeatability, linearity and matrix effect. After a straightforward sample preparation by solid phase extraction (SPE) the compounds were analyzed directly without the need for hydrolysis, solvent transfer, evaporation or reconstitution. The HILIC technique provided good chromatographic separation which was critical for isomers M3G and M6G. The analytes were detected after electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive mode with mass accuracies below 2. mDa using a 5-mDa window. A measurement range of 50-5000. ng/ml was applied for calibration using deuterated analogs as internal standards. The precision of the method was 5.7% and 10.2% (RSD) within and between days, respectively. The applicability of the method was demonstrated with authentic urine samples known to contain codeine and/or morphine and their intact glucuronide conjugates. Identification of the analytes was based on in-source collision induced dissociation (ISCID), applying three diagnostic ions with accurate mass. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Kutvonen H.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Kutvonen H.,United Medix Laboratories Ltd. | Rajala P.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Carpen L.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Bomberg M.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2015

We investigated the N-utilizing bacterial community in anoxic brackish groundwater of the low and intermediate level nuclear waste repository cave in Olkiluoto, Finland, at 100 m depth using 15N-based stable isotope probing (SIP) and enrichment with 14/15N-ammonium or 14/15N-nitrate complemented with methane. Twenty-eight days of incubation at 12°C increased the concentration of bacterial 16S rRNA and nitrate reductase (narG) gene copies in the substrate amended microcosms simultaneously with a radical drop in the overall bacterial diversity and OTU richness. Hydrogenophaga/Malikia were enriched in all substrate amended microcosms and Methylobacter in the ammonium and ammonium+methane supplemented microcosms. Sulfuricurvum was especially abundant in the nitrate+methane treatment and the unamended incubation control. Membrane-bound nitrate reductase genes (narG) from Polarimonas sp. were detected in the original groundwater, while Burkholderia, Methylibium, and Pseudomonas narG genes were enriched due to substrate supplements. Identified amoA genes belonged to Nitrosomonas sp. 15N-SIP revealed that Burkholderiales and Rhizobiales clades belonging to the minority groups in the original groundwater used 15N from ammonium and nitrate as N source indicating an important ecological function of these bacteria, despite their low number, in the groundwater N cycle in Olkiluoto bedrock system. © 2015 Kutvonen, Rajala, Carpén and Bomberg.


PubMed | United MEDIX Laboratories Ltd., Docrates Cancer Center and Innsbruck Medical University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Anticancer research | Year: 2016

We combined anti-androgen therapy with radiotherapy in a first-line setting for metastatic prostate cancer aiming to cause maximal cancer-cell death to delay the emergence of castration-resistant disease.In this non-randomized retrospective series of 46 patients, the initial median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 98.5 g/l (range=6.7-15,500), median Gleason score 9 and most men had at least TThe median follow-up time was 4.38 years (range=0.36-11.24). Most radiotherapy-related adverse events were grade 1 and transient. There were no grade 4 events. Overall survival (OS) at 5 years was 81.3%.The feasibility and safety of aggressive multimodality treatment were good resulting in an excellent median OS of 8.35 years.

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