United International University Dhanmondi
United International University Dhanmondi
Dubljevic V.,United International University Dhanmondi
AJOB Neuroscience | Year: 2012
This article proposes a model for regulating use of cognition enhancement drugs for nontherapeutic purposes. Using the method of reflective equilibrium, the author starts from the considered judgment of many citizens that treatments are obligatory and permissible while enhancements are not, and with the application of general principles of justice explains why this is the case. The author further analyzes and refutes three reasons that some influential authors in the field of neuroethics might have for downplaying the importance of justice: (1) Justice applies only to public funds and state action-not to individual choice or corporate actors. (2) "Performance enhancement" does imply questions of justice, while "performance maintenance" does not. (3) There is no sufficient difference between cognition-enhancement drugs and other technologies to warrant the importance of justice for the debate. The challenges are refuted by taking into account the difference between consumption and tool use, and the influence of socioeconomic pressure for widespread use that existing drugs could have on the basic structure of society and equal autonomy of citizens. The analysis of requirements of justice points to a conclusion that introducing economic disincentives for the use of cognition-enhancement drugs would be the most legitimate public policy. With the imposition of taxes, fees, and requirements of additional insurance, the use and indirect coercion to use would be less profitable and less widespread, while additional funds thus created could be allocated to meet basic medical needs and/or education. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Balaban O.,United International University Dhanmondi
Habitat International | Year: 2012
Construction sector is usually accepted as the engine that triggers economic growth due to its strong backward and forward linkages with other sectors. On the other hand, it is also argued that increased construction activity could end up with negative economic, social and environmental impacts. The literature emphasizes the role of public sector, especially the national governments in minimizing the negative impacts of construction activity. The related arguments mostly postulate that public sector is well aware of the environmental challenges caused by construction activity and devoted to the understanding of how to improve the sustainability performance of private developers. Yet the case of Turkey provides significant evidences to question these assumptions. In this respect, this paper elaborates on the negative impacts of increased construction activity in Turkey and argues the role of public sector in intensification of the negative environmental effects through deregulation on urban planning and housing production by public agencies. The findings of the research highlight the importance of sustainable construction and verify the need for mainstreaming of sustainable construction into public policy-making at national and local levels, especially in developing countries, where most, if not all, of the future urban population growth will take place. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Colgan J.,United International University Dhanmondi
Energy Policy | Year: 2011
A common misperception about oil politics is that it has a uniform, monolithic effect on policy development. This paper argues that in fact the net political effect of oil varies dramatically depending on the nature of the petrostate. It shows that oil income, when combined with revolutionary governments in petrostates, generates strong incentives for foreign policy aggression and international conflict. The aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states is shown to have consequences in both military and economic spheres of international relations. Militarily, the aggressiveness of this type of state leads to a high rate of armed conflicts. Economically, the aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states shapes global oil markets and international economic relations. The argument is tested using statistical analysis of international conflicts and economic sanctions. The policy implications are then considered, focusing on the negative global impacts of dependence on oil consumption. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Puppim De Oliveira J.A.,United International University Dhanmondi
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013
The growing cities in developing Asia require a massive provision of infrastructure, public transportation, housing and jobs for their population, as well as a healthy environment. On the other hand, urban Asia contributes increasingly to climate change, and suffers its impacts. The climate co-benefits approach in this paper refers to the development and implementation of policies and strategies that simultaneously contribute to addressing climate change and solving local environmental problems, which also have other development impacts. The co-benefits approach is important especially for developing countries, which have to overcome many challenges simultaneously with limited capacities and resources. Thus, the objective of this paper is to examine the main obstacles, opportunities and challenges to implementation of environmental co-benefit related policies in urban areas. The paper focuses primarily upon sub-national processes, particularly in cities in developing countries, but the research also looked into the links of sub-national processes to national and international processes. The paper relies on the results of research done in China, Indonesia and India. It offers a series of lessons for understanding initiatives that generated co-benefits and the factors that influence them. This paper provides insight on successful ways to promote, design and implement the urban co-benefits approach in urban areas. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Atkinson W.,United International University Dhanmondi
British Journal of Sociology | Year: 2013
This paper examines the consequences of the recent economic downturn and UK government spending cuts, as exacerbations of prevailing trends in neoliberal employment policy, on temporal perception, specifically as it relates to the adaptation of subjective anticipations of and projections into the future to objective prospects of unemployment by class. Grounded in a phenomenologically-minded Bourdieusian conceptualization of class and time and contextualized by statistics on chances of job loss, it draws on qualitative research with 57 individuals from across the class structure to chart differing dispositions toward the future. In particular, it distinguishes three orientations - the future as controllable, the future as uncontrollable and the future as reasonably controllable - which appear to correspond with resources possessed. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.
Mooney H.A.,Stanford University |
Duraiappah A.,United International University Dhanmondi |
Larigauderie A.,French Natural History Museum
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2013
Efforts to develop a global understanding of the functioning of the Earth as a system began in the mid-1980s. This effort necessitated linking knowledge from both the physical and biological realms. A motivation for this development was the growing impact of humans on the Earth system and need to provide solutions, but the study of the social drivers and their consequences for the changes that were occurring was not incorporated into the Earth System Science movement, despite early attempts to do so. The impediments to integration were many, but they are gradually being overcome, which can be seen in many trends for assessments, such as the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, as well as both basic and applied science programs. In this development, particular people and events have shaped the trajectories that have occurred. The lessons learned should be considered in such emerging research programs as Future Earth, the new global program for sustainability research. The transitioning process to this new program will take time as scientists adjust to new colleagues with different ideologies, methods, and tools and a new way of doing science.
Lee L.Y.T.,United International University Dhanmondi
Energy Economics | Year: 2013
This paper presents evidence that household energy use in Uganda conforms to the energy ladder theory. As household income increases, solid and transitional fuel use evolves in an inverse U manner, while electricity consumption shows a direct relationship with income. Public infrastructure provision, income, and education are the key variables which can be targeted to reduce household dependence on solid-fuels while increasing non-solid fuel use. While education and public infrastructure have varying impacts on rural and urban households' energy mix, these variables generally reduce rudimentary fuel use and increase modern fuel consumption. Timely investment in electricity infrastructure is necessary to cater for burgeoning electricity demand as households become affluent. Strategies for reforestation, dissemination of improved cookstoves, relieving supply side constraints for modern fuels, and staggered payment options to lower the cost of entry for modern fuels can improve Ugandan households' energy security. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Burrell Q.L.,United International University Dhanmondi
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2012
In a recent article, L. Egghe, R. Guns, and R. Rousseau () noted that in a study of some eminent scientists, many of them had a fair proportion of papers which were uncited and found this to be surprising. Here, we use the stochastic publication/citation model of Q.L. Burrell () to show that the result might in fact be expected. This brief communication is in the spirit of Q.L. Burrell (,), showing that results that might at first sight seem to be surprising can in fact often be explainable in a stochastic framework. © 2012 ASIS&T.
Crewe S.,United International University Dhanmondi
Sport in History | Year: 2014
Business historians have led the way in research into company paternalism and the origins and development of welfare provision. Their work has focused on large-scale enterprises and has generally located welfare (sports and social) within the broader framework of company culture. Whilst much of welfare provision is related to sport and recreation, sports historians have perhaps neglected this area in recent years. This paper will begin to redress this imbalance by examining the origins and development of work-based sport and recreational provision at four major employers-Robinson & Sons (textile & packaging manufacturers, Chesterfield), Raleigh (cycle manufacturers, Nottingham), Lyons, (food processors and caterers based in West London), and the Bank of England. Among business historians the prevailing view is that such provision was a management strategy designed to encourage loyalty to the firm. It will be argued here that it was more of a bottom-up process with workers initiating, organising and sustaining clubs and societies, albeit with a good deal of financial and logistical support from their employers. © 2014 The British Society of Sports History.
Miller L.E.,United International University Dhanmondi
Trauma, Violence, and Abuse | Year: 2015
The current study is a review of existing literature on perceived threat across childhood (0–19 years). There is strong evidence from this body of research that threat detection emerges in infancy and is present throughout childhood, with meaningful links to child adjustment. The wide range of methodologies employed to assess threat include biological measures (event-related potential and functional magnetic resonance imaging), observational data (gaze duration and response time), and a range of ways of gathering cognitive data (threat appraisal). Across methodologies, a uniform finding is that children who have higher threat attenuation are at increased risk for the development of anxiety disorders. It also seems that children’s attention to threatening stimuli may vary across development, with heightened attention in infancy and early childhood. These findings have meaningful extensions for children who are living in violent families. Since many children living in violent homes are exposed to the threat of violence beginning in infancy, these children may be at heightened risk as compared to their nonexposed peers for the development of maladaptive patterns of threat detection and response. There is some evidence that this long-standing pattern of vigilance toward threat in key developmental periods may in part explain the increased risk of the development of anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder following exposure to violence. © The Author(s) 2014