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Berezhkovskii A.M.,United Information Technology
Chemical Physics | Year: 2010

Path integral based approach is used to analyze the variance of the residence time spent in a sub-domain by a particle diffusing in the presence of an arbitrary potential in a larger domain containing the sub-domain. It is assumed that there is no absorption of the particle within the domain or at its boundaries. Because of the ergodisity, the mean residence time in the sub-domain is a product of the observation time and the equilibrium probability of finding the particle in the sub-domain. We show that the variance also grows linearly with the observation time at large times and explain how the slope of this linear dependence can be found. The general approach is illustrated by simple examples, in which explicit formulas for the variance can be obtained.

Ross C.A.,United Information Technology
Nature Genetics | Year: 2016

Antibiotic resistance is an increasingly serious public health threat. Understanding pathways allowing bacteria to survive antibiotic stress may unveil new therapeutic targets. We explore the role of the bacterial epigenome in antibiotic stress survival using classical genetic tools and single-molecule real-time sequencing to characterize genomic methylation kinetics. We find that Escherichia coli survival under antibiotic pressure is severely compromised without adenine methylation at GATC sites. Although the adenine methylome remains stable during drug stress, without GATC methylation, methyl-dependent mismatch repair (MMR) is deleterious and, fueled by the drug-induced error-prone polymerase Pol IV, overwhelms cells with toxic DNA breaks. In multiple E. coli strains, including pathogenic and drug-resistant clinical isolates, DNA adenine methyltransferase deficiency potentiates antibiotics from the β-lactam and quinolone classes. This work indicates that the GATC methylome provides structural support for bacterial survival during antibiotic stress and suggests targeting bacterial DNA methylation as a viable approach to enhancing antibiotic activity. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

Dubow W.M.,United Information Technology
Computer | Year: 2013

Computing-related jobs are interesting, well-paying, secure, and abundant, so why aren't more women working in this creative field that produces the technology that is central to our daily lives? The Web extra at is a video interview in which Wendy DuBow, a research scientist at the National Center for Women Information Technology, discusses the importance of gender diversity in computing with Alfred C. (Alf) Weaver, the director of the University of Virginia's Applied Research Institute. © 1970-2012 IEEE.

Possolo A.,United Information Technology
Metrologia | Year: 2014

In the course of the twenty years since the publication of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), the recognition has been steadily growing of the value that statistical models and statistical computing bring to the evaluation of measurement uncertainty, and of how they enable its probabilistic interpretation. These models and computational methods can address all the problems originally discussed and illustrated in the GUM, and enable addressing other, more challenging problems, that measurement science is facing today and that it is expected to face in the years ahead. These problems that lie beyond the reach of the techniques in the GUM include (i) characterizing the uncertainty associated with the assignment of value to measurands of greater complexity than, or altogether different in nature from, the scalar or vectorial measurands entertained in the GUM: for example, sequences of nucleotides in DNA, calibration functions and optical and other spectra, spatial distribution of radioactivity over a geographical region, shape of polymeric scaffolds for bioengineering applications, etc; (ii) incorporating relevant information about the measurand that predates or is otherwise external to the measurement experiment; (iii) combining results from measurements of the same measurand that are mutually independent, obtained by different methods or produced by different laboratories. This review of several of these statistical models and computational methods illustrates some of the advances that they have enabled, and in the process invites a reflection on the interesting historical fact that these very same models and methods, by and large, were already available twenty years ago, when the GUM was first published - but then the dialogue between metrologists, statisticians and mathematicians was still in bud. It is in full bloom today, much to the benefit of all. © 2014 BIPM & IOP Publishing Ltd.

Rukhin A.L.,United Information Technology
Metrologia | Year: 2015

A problem that frequently occurs in metrology is the bias checking of data obtained by a laboratory against the specified value and uncertainty estimate given in the certificate of analysis. The measurand - a property of a certified reference material (CRM) - is supposed to be random with a normal distribution whose parameters are given by the certificate specifications. The laboratory's data from subsequent measurements of the CRM (a CRM experiment) are summarized by the sample mean value and its uncertainty which is commonly based on a repeatability standard deviation. New confidence intervals for the lab's bias are derived. Although they may lack intuitive appeal, those obtained by using higher order asymptotic methods, compared and contrasted in this paper, are recommended. © 2015 BIPM & IOP Publishing Ltd.

Jones E.B.,United Information Technology | Furukawa M.F.,Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
Health Affairs | Year: 2014

Federally qualified health centers play an important role in providing health care to underserved populations. Recent substantial federal investments in health information technology have enabled health centers to expand their use of electronic health record (EHR) systems, but factors associated with adoption are not clear. We examined 2010-12 administrative data from the Health Resources and Services Administration's Uniform Data System for more than 1,100 health centers. We found that in 2012 nine out of ten health centers had adopted a EHR system, and half had adopted EHRs with basic capabilities. Seven in ten health centers reported that their providers were receiving meaningful-use incentive payments from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Only one-third of health centers had EHR systems that could meet CMS's stage 1 meaningful-use core requirements. Health centers that met the stage 1 requirements had more than twice the odds of receiving quality recognition, compared with centers with less than basic EHRs. Policy initiatives should focus assistance on EHR capabilities with slower uptake; connect providers with technical assistance to support implementation; and leverage the connection between meaningful use and quality recognition programs. © 2014 by Project HOPE - The People-to-People Health Foundation.

Rukhin A.L.,United Information Technology
Metrologia | Year: 2013

A decision problem frequently occurring in metrology is that of compatibility of data obtained by two (or several) different laboratories, methods or instruments. One laboratory can be a prestigious national metrology institute whose data are considered to be a gold standard or a certified reference material interval. When each laboratory presents its results in the form of a coverage interval for the measurand, several statistical approaches to this conformity assessment problem are reviewed including the classical 'equality of means' hypotheses tests. A new compatibility hypothesis is formulated in terms of consistency of laboratory results and compliance with a maximum permitted uncertainty. The power functions of these tests are compared numerically. The Kullback-Leibler information number is suggested as a directional (asymmetric) interchangeability index. © 2013 BIPM & IOP Publishing Ltd.

Jones S.,United Information Technology
International Journal of Information Management | Year: 2012

United Kingdom Local Authorities (UKLA) have the responsibility for delivering a wide range of services to the general public which include a number of significant problems in many delivery areas. The information technology (IT) field is arguably one of the most challenging. Consequently, a senior executive issue within UKLA is transforming organisations through the deployment of IT. This is due to the call from the UK National Government for the public sector to be more innovative. This paper investigates via a case analysis, the rationale for the implementation of an organisational-wide, corporate electronic document management system (EDMS). There is a paucity in the literature, which this research aims to help address. This paper analyses how the EDMS was deployed and how the case organisation was transformed and the findings are mapped against the normative literature. The paper also identifies a set of lessons, enabling and risk factors together with a good practice framework for future EDMS deployment. This is based upon the literature and case research to help improve deployment outcomes, information management and organisational transformation. These lessons include a feasibility study, senior executive commitment, aligned business strategy, project management, improvements to user ownership, training, system utilization, information management processes, printing strategy and post implementation review. The contribution of the research will be of benefit to both academics and practitioners engaged in EDMS research and implementation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Buntin M.B.,United Information Technology | Burke M.F.,ONC | Hoaglin M.C.,ONC | Blumenthal D.,ONC
Health Affairs | Year: 2011

An unprecedented federal effort is under way to boost the adoption of electronic health records and spur innovation in health care delivery. We reviewed the recent literature on health information technology to determine its effect on outcomes, including quality, efficiency, and provider satisfaction. We found that 92 percent of the recent articles on health information technology reached conclusions that were positive overall. We also found that the benefits of the technology are beginning to emerge in smaller practices and organizations, as well as in large organizations that were early adopters. However, dissatisfaction with electronic health records among some providers remains a problem and a barrier to achieving the potential of health information technology. These realities highlight the need for studies that document the challenging aspects of implementing health information technology more specifically and how these challenges might be addressed. © 2011 by Project HOPE - The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

Despite major national investments to support the adoption of health information technology (IT), concerns persist that barriers are inhibiting that adoption and the use of advanced health IT capabilities in rural areas in particular. Using a survey of Medicare-certified critical-access hospitals, we examined electronic health record (EHR) adoption, key EHR functionalities, telehealth, and teleradiology, as well as challenges to EHR adoption. In 2013, 89 percent of critical-access hospitals had implemented a full or partial EHR. Adoption of key EHR capabilities varied. Critical-access hospitals that had certain types of technical assistance and resources available to support health IT were more likely to have adopted health IT capabilities and less likely to report significant challenges to EHR implementation and use, compared to other hospitals in the survey. It is important to ensure that the necessary resources and support are available to critical-access hospitals, especially those that operate independently, to assist them in adopting health IT and becoming able to electronically link to the broader health care system. © 2014 by Project HOPE - The People-to-People Health Foundation.

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