On Friday, United Airlines will launch a new initiative that uses biofuel to help power flights running between Los Angeles and San Francisco, with eventual plans to expand to all flights operating out of LAX. It’s the first time an American airline will begin using renewable fuel for regular commercial operations, and the occasion is part of a bigger movement when it comes to clean transportation in the U.S. The renewable fuel used to power United’s planes will be coming from a Los Angeles refinery operated by AltAir Fuels, which is using the facility to produce both renewable jet fuel and diesel fuel using a technology developed by Honeywell UOP, a major supplier and technology licenser in the petroleum industry. Back in 2013, AltAir and United announced their partnership, in which United will purchase up to 15 million gallons of biofuel over a three-year period. Friday’s launch will be the first application of that agreement. The flights will use a mixture of 30 percent biofuel and 70 percent traditional fuel, and United says that the biofuel will help reduce greenhouse gas emissions by about 60 percent compared with regular fuel. In general, the idea behind renewable fuels is to use a biological source — for example, plant or animal matter — rather than a geological one, like oil. The Honeywell UOP technology that’s being applied at the AltAir refinery can utilize a range of difference sources, from used cooking oil to algae. The technology has been in the works since 2007, when the company was awarded a grant from DARPA to develop green jet fuel, according to Veronica May, vice president and general manager of renewable energy and chemicals at Honeywell UOP. Currently, its technology allows for the production of diesel fuel that can be used in any proportion with existing diesel engines — up to 100 percent. Its jet fuel can replace up to 50 percent of petroleum fuel in existing aircraft. Altogether, both fuels can offer up to about an 80 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions compared with traditional fuel, the company says. “This is a long-term investment toward the future of sustainability for our company and for our communities,” said Angela Foster-Rice, United’s managing director of environmental affairs and sustainability, adding that “it’s also very business-smart and helps our community with clean energy jobs as well.” The announcement comes at a time when interest in using biofuel to cut down on carbon emissions in the transportation sector is climbing — but also when it has been beset with controversy. The Environmental Protection Agency already requires refiners to mix a certain amount of renewable fuel, mainly corn-based ethanol, into their gasoline — and just last November, the agency chose to increase those standards in a move that inspired has considerable criticism from the petroleum industry, which has been sparring with the nation’s ethanol producers for the past several years. So when it comes to biofuels for motor vehicles, the issue remains fraught with controversy. Renewable jet fuel, on the other hand, constitutes a relatively untapped opportunity. But while United may be first U.S.-based airline to launch regular biofuel-powered commercial flights, it will likely not be the last. Both Southwest Airlines and FedEx have reportedly contracted with a company called Red Rock Biofuels to start buying renewable jet fuel. And marine transportation may be just starting to jump on board as well. At the end of January, the U.S. Navy formally launched its “Great Green Fleet,” a deployment of warships also powered by renewable fuel supplied by AltAir. AltAir is reportedly contracted to supply 77 million gallons of the fuel overall by September of this year. When it comes to both marine and aircraft transportation, there’s been a great deal of discussion recently about how to slash emissions, both through renewable fuels and through other forms of technology, said Dan Rutherford, marine and aviation program director at the International Council on Clean Transportation. Aircraft currently contribute to a little over 1 percent of all the world’s carbon emissions and climbing, and Rutherford said shipping accounts for a slightly higher proportion — about 3 percent. Aviation, in particular, has received considerable attention recently because of the expected rapid growth in its global emissions over the next several years if action is not taken. And planes are especially difficult to decarbonize because they are so difficult to power by alternative means. A few manufacturers have experimented with electric aircraft, but the technology is in no condition to be used for commercial means any time soon. In an attempt to start addressing the problem, just last month the UN’s International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) proposed the world’s first carbon dioxide emissions standards for aircraft. And back in 2011, according to Rutherford, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) passed a set of fuel efficiency standards for new ships, which went into effect last year. However, while each move was an important step forward, both the marine and aviation standards applied only to new crafts, meaning existing planes and ships have not been required to upgrade. ICAO was roundly criticized by environmentalists over this issue when it released its proposal in February, and Rutherford noted that there is also “a big discussion within IMO about whether there should be efficiency standards for existing ships.” But the use of biofuels is one possibility for existing machines to cut down on their emissions without having to upgrade their engines or other aspects of their design or engineering. “Drop-in” fuels are renewable fuels that are designed to work safely with existing engines, although as in the case of the United flights, they sometimes require mixing with traditional fuels. Of course, Honeywell UOP’s technology isn’t the only one out there — and AltAir’s refinery isn’t the only plant, either. United, for instance, also recently made a $30 million investment in Fulcrum Bioenergy, which has developed a way to convert household garbage into fuel. That partnership comes with the opportunity for the airline to purchase at least 90 million gallons of renewable jet fuel per year, and also to co-develop biorefineries in at least five locations around the U.S., according to Foster-Rice. So the interest in expanding biofuels throughout the transportation sector is slowly starting to pick up. However, it’s unclear for the time being whether other airlines — or other marine fleets, for that matter — will follow suit with similar investments any time soon. And according to Rutherford, there are still many questions to be answered about the relative role of biofuels versus other technologies when it comes to cutting carbon emissions, particularly in aviation. How much airlines will be willing to pay for renewable fuel is one important point to consider in the future, he noted, as well as questions about the sustainability and efficiency of the fuels, themselves. “People are always analyzing how good these fuels can be and how they can get better,” he said. But May, of Honeywell UOP, is optimistic about continued interest in the industry. The EPA’s recent action to increase standards on biofuels and gasoline has sparked an interest from refiners in green diesel, she said, adding that other parties have also expressed an interest in the green jet fuel, although United remains the only U.S. airline to make a commercial commitment to the use of biofuels in aircraft. “We’ve made really significant strides over the last 10 years in developing new technologies, and we intend to continue to be in the industry for the foreseeable future innovating new technologies,” she said. Before his tragic death, nature photographer shot iconic images of climate change’s threat China vowed to peak emissions by 2030. It could be way ahead of schedule What the Clinton-Sanders divide on fracking says about our energy future For more, you can sign up for our weekly newsletter here, and follow us on Twitter here.
News Article | April 4, 2007
Google Website Optimizer, a tool that allows you to easily test different page layouts, is now available to anyone with an AdWords account. Previously, it had been out in limited beta since last October. It remains unclear whether using the tool would be considered cloaking, which is against Google’s webmaster guidelines. The Good Cloaking, Evil Cloaking & Detection article from Stephan Spencer here on Search Engine Land looked at this issue last month. Threadwatch has a recent discussion also going. I’ll explain more about the situation below, and I’m checking with Google for the official word. Fair to say, Google’s probably going to say that using the tool is NOT cloaking. Otherwise, you’ve got one part of Google putting out a tool that will cause anyone using it to potentially be banned by another part of Google. This also means questions that have hung over other page testing tools such as Offermatica should go away. It won’t make the cloaking debate necessarily easier, however. Consider the If Your Page Ranks Well, You’d Better Be Messing With It article from Rand Fishkin at SEOmoz last month. In it, Rand picks up on a challenge that Jamie Roche (CEO of Offermatica) makes to the traditional wisdom that if a page is ranking well, you don’t want to alter it much. Rand argues the major factors controlling rank are mostly off-the-page (importance of your domain, links to your pages) and thus not impacted by change to the page itself. I’m largely with him. If a page is doing well, altering it really shouldn’t have that much of an impact, unless you’re doing something really drastic such as replacing all the text for images. And yet — I’d still be cautious, despite knowing that’s not likely something to fear. This leads back to Roche’s article. Roche is clearly reacting to clients that are concerned that his product, Offermatica, might suggest changes that could cause them to lose rankings. So, there’s an element of self-interest in his writing. But I still find many of his points valid: Unfortunately, even if you don’t mess with your page, your rank could change. That’s because the rules that the search engines use to rank sites change as they discover newer, and presumably better, ways to rank results. A page that ranked well one day might drop to the third or fourth page the next, or get removed altogether. The result is that we live in a state of fear about changing well-ranked pages, while knowing that even if we don’t change them we could lose rank anyway. So when we realize that we want to change our natural search landing pages because they don’t provide the best user experience, we wonder whether it might make sense to experiment with changes despite our fears. He then also gets into three tactics, warning that potentially, they could get you delisted or cause a rank drop: Now here’s an even more complicated issue. Many who do good old-fashioned cloaking have long argued that it doesn’t matter how they get ranking, as long as they are relevant. So what if they use gibberish text or put out some highly-optimized textual content? As long as they show the visitor a relevant page, what’s the harm? Indeed, if you buy into the argument that what you do on the page largely doesn’t matter — that it’s really down to domain authority and links — then it becomes even harder to understand why cloaking is such an issue. Moreover, what prevents someone from eternally testing a page? If you gain a ranking with some butt-ugly page, you might then keep feeding that to spiders but constantly test it with a page testing tool. Potentially, that keeps you out of the cloaking hot seat yet it does the same exact thing that cloaking does. Overall, Google in particular has dodged its outdated guidelines on cloaking time-and-time again over the past few years. My YADAC: Yet Another Debate About Cloaking Happens Again article from last month provides the background here. They can’t keep dodging it in the case of page testing tools now, not when they themselves are offering one. So I’m pinging them for the official word. As for the tool, here’s more from the formal announcement: As part of our continued commitment to help advertisers make smart business decisions, we are happy to announce that the Google Website Optimizer™ application is now available to AdWords advertisers worldwide. Google Website Optimizer is designed to help website owners increase conversions such as sales, sign-ups or downloads. This multivariate landing page optimization tool enables marketers to test different ideas for web page content such as different headlines, promotional copy, or images. The application provides easy-to-read reports that enable advertisers to see which variation resonated best with their site visitor. It is a self-service application that enables website owners to set-up and run multivariate landing page experiments. Google Website Optimizer is a beta application that is integrated with the Google AdWords™ program and free to AdWords advertisers. Advertisers can sign up immediately at www.google.com/websiteoptimizer. Over the coming weeks, the Google Website Optimizer application will become available automatically in all advertisers’ accounts. Website owners can now determine what content was most effective as indicated by the highest conversion rate. By giving website owners the tools they need to improve their website content, Google is helping improve the user experience on the internet as a whole. Since the beta launch of the application in October 2006, many advertisers who used Google Website Optimizer have achieved major results. "Using Website Optimizer enables us to approach our website like a living lab, where we can test and play and constantly figure out how to improve the site," says Deborah Krier, Marketing Manager, Dale and Thomas Popcorn, "Website Optimizer is a powerful tool that allows us to understand our users better, leading to increased conversions and increased business success." In addition, we are announcing the formation of a new partner program, Google Website Optimizer Authorized Consultants. As of today, Optimost, EpikOne, Future Now, ROI Revolution, and SiteTuners.com have signed on as charter members. “We’re delighted that Google is now offering Website Optimizer. In the past, not everyone had the tools to test regularly,” said Bryan Eisenberg, co-founder, Future Now, Inc. and author of the New York Times bestseller Call to Action, “Google Analytics had a major effect on the accessibility of data and on how website owners valued analytics; Website Optimizer will take the benefits of testing to a much broader audience and help them increase online conversion rates.” For more information or to sign up to use Website Optimizer, please visit: www.google.com/websiteoptimizer
It wasn't just science that got Eli Lehrer to accept the reality of climate change. It was insurance markets. As a free-market expert on insurance policy, Lehrer realized many years ago where the industry models were headed. "Every modeling firm used by the insurance industry acknowledged climate change is real. If markets have the ability to aggregate information, then either markets don't work or climate change is real. My judgment is that markets work and therefore climate change is real," says Lehrer. In 2012, Lehrer founded the R Street Institute, a think tank devoted to spreading free-market principles. In recent years, he's become a libertarian thought leader on environmental protection, carbon pricing and, most recently, the distributed energy transition. In this episode, the Energy Gang talks with Lehrer about how to make these issues more palatable to the political right. In our second segment, we'll talk about a new consumer poll on rate design and subsidies for solar. We'll end the show with a look at United Airlines' big biofuels announcement. The Energy Gang is produced by Greentechmedia.com. The show features weekly discussions between energy futurist Jigar Shah, energy policy expert Katherine Hamilton and Greentech Media Editor Stephen Lacey.
The Obama administration announced Tuesday that it is dropping its year-old plan to allow companies to search and drill for oil and natural gas in the Atlantic Ocean off of four southeastern states. Department of Interior Sally Jewell said in a statement that objections from the Pentagon and strong opposition from nearly a hundred coastal communities in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia factored into the decision to not offer leases to companies starting in 2017. [The government’s Atlantic drilling plan takes friendly fire — from the Pentagon] “We heard from many corners that now is not the time to offer oil and gas leasing off the Atlantic coast,” Jewell said. “When you factor in conflicts with national defense, economic activities such as fishing and tourism, and opposition from many local communities, it simply doesn’t make sense to move forward with any lease sales in the coming five years.” There were added issues as well. The statement from the department, which received more than a million comments on its draft plan, listed commercial interests, current market dynamics and limited infrastructure as factors also driving the decision. Other aspects of the president five-year energy plan, which has already undergone several rounds of public hearings, will move forward, such as a plan to offer 10 new leases in the Gulf of Mexico, one of the world’s most productive sources of oil Jewell said. Three leases will also be explored in the Alaskan Arctic. According to Interior’s estimates, more than 3 billion barrels of oil is recoverable on the outer continental shelf, plus more than 30 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. Virginia Gov. Terry McAuliffe (D) had expressed support for oil excavation as long as it was done responsibly, with the protection of the state’s lucrative beach tourism in mind. McAuliffe had little comment Tuesday, other than to say that Jewell’s announcement provides “an opportunity to work with the Department of Defense” to address its concerns moving forward. U.S. Sen. Tim Kaine (D-Va.) said in a statement he has long felt that the ban on Atlantic drilling should be reconsidered. He said he was struck by the Pentagon’s objections because he’d never heard them previously, even when he was governor from 2006-2010. “The DoD has been relatively quiet during this public debate and has never shared their objections with me before.” The military’s more recent objections to the Atlantic drilling plan appear to have carried significant weight. The Pentagon said Sunday that it drafted an assessment, at Jewell’s request, that identified “areas where the [Defense’s] offshore readiness activities are not compatible, partially compatible or minimally impacted by oil and gas activities,” spokesman Matthew Allen said in an email. Officials also argued that oil exploration such as seismic testing and platforms could compromise training naval exercises “from unit level training to major joint service and fleet exercises.” Reaction from oil industry advocates was immediate and negative. “The decision appeases extremists who seek to stop oil and natural gas production which would increase the cost of energy for American consumers and close the door for years to creating new jobs, new investments and boosting energy security,” said American Petroleum Institute President and Chief Executive Jack Gerard. “This decision stunts the safe and responsible path to securing the domestic energy supplies future generations of Americans will need,” he said, adding that it ends a chance to create jobs for Americans along the Atlantic coast and nationwide, and “also erasing millions more in revenue to the government.” Karen Harbert, president and CEO of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Institute for 21st Century Energy, also lashed out. “America’s job creators have become accustomed to the relentless drumbeat of anti-energy policies from the Obama administration,” she said. But closing off the Atlantic coast to offshore drilling “is nevertheless remarkable for its catering to fringe constituencies at the expense of energy security and the American economy.” Environmentalists, however, praised the administration. “With this decision, coastal communities have won a ‘David vs. Goliath’ fight against the richest companies on the planet, and that is a cause for tremendous optimism for the well-being of future generations,” Jacqueline Savitz, vice president of Oceana for the United States, said in a statement. “This is an incredible day for the Southeast,” said Sierra Weaver, senior attorney for the Southern Environmental Law Center. “It represents the hard work of thousands of people and protects some of our most cherished places, from the Chesapeake Bay and the Outer Banks to the South Carolina Low country and Georgia barrier islands.” The decision was the second rejection of a major project involving oil since the administration turned down the Keystone XL pipeline in November. Both actions are a nod in favor of environmentalists, who have been disappointed with some of President Obama’s energy initiatives during his two terms. Like Obama’s decision on the Keystone pipeline, this one runs against public opinion. A Yale University survey last fall found 60 percent of Americans supporting expanded drilling for oil and natural gas off the U.S. coast. Fifty-seven percent of Democrats opposed expansion, while 62 percent of independents and 79 percent of Republicans supported it. Coastal communities that supported the possibility of Atlantic drilling six years ago turned against it following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The city of Virginia Beach abruptly reversed course when its council voted to rescind its 2010 resolution after some of the city’s biggest business alliances campaigned against drilling. This New York storm barrier could have slowed down Sandy. But European settlers ate it United Airlines is flying on biofuels. Here’s why that’s a really big deal The more we learn about Antarctica’s past, the scarier the present looks For more, you can sign up for our weekly newsletter here, and follow us on Twitter here.
In California, United Airlines (UA) will be using jet biofuels produced by AltAir using Honeywell (HON) UOP technology on up to 150 flights a day out of Los Angeles, the Digest has learned. March 11. A two week, 14-day Los Angeles to San Francisco service will launch United’s jet biofuels plan. After the first two weeks, “pretty much all flights out of LAX will have a component of biofuel,” said a person familiar with the United plan. Flights are expected to begin almost immediately. Depending on the feedstock used, Honeywell Green Jet Fuel can offer a 65 to 85% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions compared with petroleum-based jet fuel, which helps refiners meet EPA mandates for renewable transportation fuel content. It’s also being delivered at a price comparable to petroleum fuel, marking a major milestone towards the widespread use of renewables fuel. United will purchase up to 15 million gallons of sustainable aviation biofuel from AltAir over a three-year period, with the option to purchase more. In 2013, AltAir and United announced the 15 million gallon deal, saying at the time that they expected to be operating flights in 2014. AltAir Fuels said that it planned to retrofit the idled portions of its Paramount petroleum refinery to produce renewable jet fuel and other products from non-edible oils and agricultural waste. The opening of the AltAir refinery created 150 jobs in Paramount, California. The biofuel is mixed with traditional jet fuel at a 30/70 blend ratio. AltAir can produce enough sustainable bio-jet fuel to power the equivalent of more than 40,000 flights from Los Angeles to San Francisco over the next three years — at its historic 40 million gallons plant. Merging refinery tech with biofuels: The Digest’s 2016 8-Slide Guide to Honeywell’s UOP This is third launch we’ve seen using Honeywell Green Fuel. Last summer, the Disney Transportation bus fleet became one of the first in the country to run on R50, a cleaner renewable diesel (RD) made from used cooking oil and non-consumable food waste. Then, in January the US Navy’s Great Green Fleet sailed on its 2016 mission, using green marine diesel. Now, United takes off with renewable jet fuel — all made using the same technology. “These very public users highlight the fact they the fuels are commercially available, and to have three different modes of jet, marine and road sends a positive message about the technology,” Honeywell UOP renewables czarina Veronica May told The Digest. It’s been a long road, we note. But not as long as, for example, the path to getting lead out of fuels, May noted. “Anyone who’s been in the business knows that changes in fuels take years and decades. When you look back, it took 30 years to remove lead. There was the Clean Air Act in 1970 which set the target, but it wasn’t until 1986 that we had all of the lead removed for road transport, and 1990 for all vehicles, and Europe took another 10 years to get the lead out. We’re 10 years into the Renewable Fuel Standard. and obviously the low oil price is rocking the financial market, but these projects are years in the making, and a blip in the price will slow but not stop the momentum.” May emphasized having the capital and the portfolio of technologies to meet customer needs throughout the commodity price cycle. “One thing that UOP brings to renewable fuels, is that we are able to continue investment year after year. A lot of groups have great ideas but don’t have the funding, so when gasoline prices are high you get a flurry of activity but they can’t can’t sustain it. Renewables are one part of UOP, and the rest helps to support renewables.” We asked May about the low price environment and the era of high oil prices. Noting that in the era of high prices that we saw so much diversion of capital and consumer interest to electrics, natural gas vehicles, and reducing drive miles. Is there a pricing sweet spot, we wondered? “Actually, what you don;t want to see is a lot of volatility. If it would just stay in one range, that would help, because a lot of feedstock prices track the oil price. Another thing that helps is feedstock diversity. Right now we have waste oils, but when camelina and others come along, purpose—grown oilseeds crops, there you start getting a foundation, for real expansion.” “And, it would help if EPA could put out volumes not for a year or two, but for five years, because it takes 3 years to build a project from scratch.” AltAir Paramount is using Honeywell’s UOP Renewable Jet Fuel Process to convert a variety of sustainable feedstocks into Honeywell Green Jet Fuel at the world’s first dedicated commercial-scale renewable jet fuel production facility. The plant, located near the Los Angeles International Airport, has also produced Honeywell Green Diesel, a drop-in replacement for diesel made from petroleum, using the same process technology. AltAir is the second U.S. fuel producer using Honeywell UOP technology to produce renewable fuels, joining Diamond Green Diesel, which is producing renewable diesel in Louisiana The Renewable Jet Fuel Process makes Honeywell Green Jet Fuel as well as Honeywell Green Diesel from a range of sustainable feedstocks such as used cooking oil, inedible corn oil, tallow, camelina, jatropha and algae. The process is compatible with existing hydroprocessing equipment commonly used in today’s refineries, making it ideal for plants that can be converted to produce renewable fuels. Honeywell Green Diesel offers up to an 80 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions versus diesel from petroleum. Chemically identical to petroleum diesel, Honeywell Green Diesel can be used in any proportion in existing fuel tanks without infrastructure changes. Unlike biodiesel, Honeywell Green Diesel is a drop-in replacement for traditional diesel. In aircraft, Honeywell Green Jet Fuel can replace as much as 50 percent of the petroleum jet fuel used in flight, without any changes to the aircraft technology, while meeting the current ASTM jet fuel specifications for flight. Depending on the feedstock, Honeywell Green Jet Fuel can offer a 65 to 85 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions compared with petroleum-based jet fuel. “Production by AltAir and Diamond Green Diesel demonstrates that the vision of producing real fuels from sustainable feedstocks has taken the crucial step from technology demonstration to commercial-scale production,” said Veronica May, vice president and general manager of Honeywell UOP’s Renewable Energy and Chemicals business. “Honeywell UOP is committed to continuing to advance its technology to give fuel producers options to use sustainable feedstocks.” Earlier this year, the U.S. Navy’s Great Green Fleet, a carrier strike fleet of ships and aircraft, began using renewable fuel on regular deployments as part of the Navy’s efforts to demonstrate and deploy alternative sources of fuel, reduce energy consumption, decrease reliance on imported oil and significantly increase use of alternative energy. The ships are being powered by a blend of renewable marine diesel from AltAir – made from domestic sources of inedible waste, fats, oils and greases – and petroleum-based marine diesel. For the initial delivery in January 2016, AltAir prepared 1.34 million gallons of F-76 type Naval Distillate Fuel containing 10 percent HRD and 90 percent petroleum-based fuel. In addition to the AltAir partnership utilizing Honeywell UOP technology — last June, United Airlines announced a $30 million direct investment in advanced biofuels developer Fulcrum BioEnergy, obtained an option to invest in five future commercial-scale aviation biofuels plants, and signed offtake agreements for up 90 million gallons of biofuels per year. The offtake contracts are worth an estimated $1.58 billion over the 10-year offtake span, based on the current jet fuel price of $1.76 per gallon, according to Digest calculations. The shift in United’s fuel purchasing represents 3% of its annual fuel consumption, reported by the airline at 3.2 billion gallons in 2013, and comes after Cathay Pacific invested in Fulcrum BioEnergy in 2014 and signed offtake agreements from the company’s first commercial facility, now under development near Reno, Nevada. The five new plants are expected to range in size between 30 and 60 million gallons. US Renewables Group, Waste Management and Rustic Canyon, among others, have also previously invested in Fulcrum BioEnergy, which converts municipal solid waste diverted away from landfills into diesel and jet fuel. Fulcrum’s first commercial facility is expected to open before the end of 2017. Where is the petroleum coming from for that portion of the blend? Tesoro, which in January unveiled its own plan to foster the development of biocrude made from renewable biomass, which can be co-processed in its existing refineries, along with traditional crude oil. T he company has identified three new partners in the process: Fulcrum BioEnergy, Inc.: Fulcrum plans to supply biocrude produced from municipal solid waste to Tesoro to process as a feedstock at its Martinez, California Refinery. An estimated 800 barrels of biocrude per day will be produced at Fulcrum’s Sierra BioFuels Plant in Reno, Nevada, which is expected to be operational in early 2018. Virent, Inc.: Tesoro and Virent are working to establish a strategic relationship to support scale-up and commercialization of Virent’s BioForming technology which produces low-carbon, biofuel and chemicals. Ensyn Corporation: Ensyn has applied for a pathway with the California Air Resources Board to co-process its biocrude, produced from tree residue – called Renewable Fuel Oil – in Tesoro’s California refineries. We’ve said it before. These are the golden days of renewable diesel. Offtakers have the interest. The technology works. More feedstock and more capacity, that’s what’s needed. And some of that starts with policy certainty. So, all eyes on Washington DC and other capitals. Even while we sneak a peek at the California coast where the activity is humming.