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Lewthwaite J.R.,UNITEC New Zealand | Cornforth I.S.,140 Nixon St | Triggs C.M.,University of Auckland | Bussell W.T.,9a Frances St | Ennis I.L.,3 Tony Segedin Dr
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The New Zealand vegetable and flower greenhouse industries have largely converted to automated greenhouses using soilless media. A key environmental issue is the sustainable disposal and use of surplus nutrient solutions. The industry commissioned a study to investigate how the water and nutrients in the solutions could be turned into a resource. Application to pasture was selected as the most sustainable option as it has high plant cover and grows year round in New Zealand's temperate climate. A difficult period is winter when slower growth, low nitrogen uptake, high rainfall and low evapotranspiration can make sites unsuitable to receive solutions for several months. The recommendations in the study are based on seasonal pasture growth rates and the Lincoln University Nitrogen Leaching Estimation Model. These show it is environmentally safe to make regular releases to pasture of up to 30 kg N per ha every 21 days, without causing nitrate pollution of groundwater or waterways, provided the site is in a suitable condition. The critical conditions are soil moisture deficit and growth rate of the nitrogen absorbing plant. Future options include nitrogen stripping beds (wetlands, stock pads, sawdust, and greenhouse plant waste) and biodigesters.

Weller J.M.,University of Auckland | Barrow M.,University of Auckland | Gasquoine S.,UNITEC New Zealand
Medical Education | Year: 2011

Objectives Evidence suggests that doctors and nurses do not always work collaboratively in health care settings and that this contributes to suboptimal patient care. However, there is little information on interprofessional collaboration (IPC) among new medical and nursing graduates working together for the first time in a multidisciplinary health care team. Our aim was to understand the nature of the interactions, activities and issues affecting these new graduates in order to inform interventions to improve IPC in this context. Methods We interviewed 25 junior doctors and nurses and explored their experiences of working together. Interviews were transcribed, entered into a qualitative analysis software package and data were coded against a theoretical framework for health care team function. Results Although interviewees expressed mutual respect, organisational structures often limited the extent to which they could establish professional relationships. Sharing information and agreeing goals were considered fundamental to good decision making, but the working environment and differing perspectives could make this difficult to achieve. Our data suggest that junior doctors and nurses see themselves as having complementary and non-competitive roles in patient care. The establishing of an interprofessional team was seen to require leadership, which was not always apparent. Without leadership, new members were not always well oriented to the team. The need to maintain an environment in which open communication could take place was acknowledged as important for patient safety, but there were some barriers to achieving this. Conclusions Our data highlight the professionalism, respect and adaptability of these junior health professionals. We document the types of collaborative activities and tensions relevant in this context and, based on our findings, provide some strategies for improving IPC. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

Horsburgh M.,University of Auckland | Goodyear-Smith F.,University of Auckland | Bycroft J.,University of Auckland | Mahony F.,University of Auckland | And 3 more authors.
Quality and Safety in Health Care | Year: 2010

Background and context Currently, in New Zealand general practice, the introduction of new initiatives is such that interventions may be introduced without an evidence base. A critical role is to respond to the challenges of chronic illness with self-management a key component. The 'Flinders Model' of self-management collaborative care planning developed in Australia has not been evaluated in New Zealand. A study was designed to assess the usefulness of this 'Model' when utilised by nurses in New Zealand general practice. This paper describes the issues and lessons learnt from this study designed to contribute to the evidence base for primary care. Assessment of problems Analysis of interviews with the nurses and the research team allowed documentation of difficulties. These included recruitment of practices and of patients, retention of patients and practice support for the introduction of the 'new' intervention. Results of assessment A lack of organisational capacity for introduction of the 'new' initiative alongside practice difficulties in understanding their patient population and inadequate disease coding contributed to problems. Undertaking a research study designed to contribute to the evidence base for an initiative not established in general practice resulted in study difficulties. Lessons learnt The need for phased approaches to evaluation of complex interventions in primary care is imperative with exploratory qualitative work first undertaken to understand barriers to implementation. Collaborative partnerships between researchers and general practice staff are essential if the evidence base for primary care is to develop and for 'new' interventions to lead to improved health outcomes.

Poletti J.,UNITEC New Zealand
Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine | Year: 2011

Manual exposure settings for radiographic projections were once based on a points system which assumed that the HVL in soft tissue is 3.0 cm and that each change of 1.0 cm of soft tissue corresponded to a change of 25% in image receptor dose. A set of mAs steps and equivalent kVp steps was estimated that would give appropriate technique factors for changes in patient thickness. With the advent of rare-earth screen-film systems and AEC systems the points system fell into disuse. Screen-film imaging systems have almost entirely been replaced by CR or DR systems and recently, standardised exposure indices have been recommended by the AAPM and IEC to provide exposure guidance for these systems. If the fundamental assumptions on which the points system was based are still valid for modern high-frequency generators and digital imaging systems, then there would be an elegant correspondence between the predictions of the points system and the requirements for correction of exposure errors indicated by the AAPM and IEC indices. This study estimated the HVL and attenuation per cm in soft tissue using computer simulation, finding that practically, the HVL is between 2.0 and 5.0 cm and attenuation per cm ranges from 15 to 25%. The study concluded that agreement between the points system predictions and the true effects of technique factors changes on dose to the image receptor was moderately good, that use of the points system and technique charts based on this system should be encouraged and that use of the IEC or AAPM digital exposure indices should be standardised. © 2011 Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine.

Komosny D.,Brno University of Technology | Simek M.,Brno University of Technology | Kathiravelu G.,UNITEC New Zealand
Przeglad Elektrotechniczny | Year: 2013

The paper deals with IP geolocation based on communication latency measurement. The aim of IP geolocation is to estimate the geographical location of an IP-enabled node. Latency-based IP geolocation methods measure latency from a set of landmarks with the known geographical position to a target with an unknown position. When the latency values are known, the target position is estimated using multilateration. A disadvantage is that for each target's position estimation, a new latency measurement is required. In order to avoid this, it has been proposed to employ a latency prediction method, such as Vivaldi, to predict the latency between a target and a landmark and, thus, reduce the number of latency measurements. In this paper, we investigate this proposal in terms of location accuracy and efficiency. The conclusion of the paper gives an indicative answer about the credibility of Vivaldi for its use in IP geolocation.

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