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Argout X.,Unite Mixte de Recherche Developpement et Amelioration des Plantes | Salse J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Aury J.-M.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Aury J.-M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 65 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2011

We sequenced and assembled the draft genome of Theobroma cacao, an economically important tropical-fruit tree crop that is the source of chocolate. This assembly corresponds to 76% of the estimated genome size and contains almost all previously described genes, with 82% of these genes anchored on the 10 T. cacao chromosomes. Analysis of this sequence information highlighted specific expansion of some gene families during evolution, for example, flavonoid-related genes. It also provides a major source of candidate genes for T. cacao improvement. Based on the inferred paleohistory of the T. cacao genome, we propose an evolutionary scenario whereby the ten T. cacao chromosomes were shaped from an ancestor through eleven chromosome fusions. © 2011 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

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