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Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France

Valat C.,Unite Antibioresistance et Virulence Bacteriennes | Auvray F.,Anses Laboratoire Of Securite Des Aliments Of Maisons Alfort | Forest K.,Unite Antibioresistance et Virulence Bacteriennes | Metayer V.,Unite Antibioresistance et Virulence Bacteriennes | And 4 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

In line with recent reports of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in Escherichia coli isolates of highly virulent serotypes, such as O104:H4, we investigated the distribution of phylogroups (A, B1, B2, D) and virulence factor (VF)-encoding genes in 204 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from diarrheic cattle. ESBL genes, VFs, and phylogroups were identified by PCR and a commercial DNA array (Alere, France). ESBL genes belonged mostly to the CTX-M-1 (65.7%) and CTX-M-9 (27.0%) groups, whereas those of the CTX-M-2 and TEM groups were much less represented (3.9% and 3.4%, respectively). One ESBL isolate was stx1 and eae positive and belonged to a major enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serotype (O111:H8). Two other isolates were eae positive but stx negative; one of these had serotype O26:H11. ESBL isolates belonged mainly to phylogroup A (55.4%) and, to lesser extents, to phylogroups D (25.5%) and B1 (15.6%), whereas B2 strains were quasi-absent (1/204). The number of VFs was significantly higher in phylogroup B1 than in phylogroups A (P=0.04) and D (P=0.02). Almost all of the VFs detected were found in CTX-M-1 isolates, whereas only 64.3% and 33.3% of them were found in CTX-M-9 and CTX-M-2 isolates, respectively. These results indicated that the widespread dissemination of the blaCTX-M genes within the E. coli population from cattle still spared the subpopulation of EHEC/Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC) isolates. In contrast to other reports on non-ESBL-producing isolates from domestic animals, B1 was not the main phylogroup identified. However, B1 was found to be the most virulent phylogroup, suggesting host-specific distribution of virulence determinants among phylogenetic groups. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

Haenni M.,Unite Antibioresistance et Virulence Bacteriennes | Chatre P.,Unite Antibioresistance et Virulence Bacteriennes | Metayer V.,Unite Antibioresistance et Virulence Bacteriennes | Bour M.,Unite Antibioresistance et Virulence Bacteriennes | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2014

Food-producing animals have become a growing reservoir of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria. In cattle, veal calves are exposed to high amounts of antibiotics but ESBL prevalence data are still limited compared to other food sectors such as poultry production. Based on the investigation of 491 veal calves from different slaughtering batches at 12 abattoirs, this study shows a prevalence of 29.4% of ESBL producers in the faecal flora of veal calves in France in 2012. A variety of blaCTX-M genes was found, reflecting possible diverse pathways of dissemination in cattle. Another major conclusion is the comparison of the ESBL prevalence in the dominant versus sub-dominant Escherichia coli population of the same calves (1% and 29.4%, respectively). Also, the ESBL E. coli clones in the sub-dominant flora mostly differed from the non-ESBL dominant E. coli clones of the same calves. Of note, the distribution of blaCTX-M genes and E. coli phylogroups were similar to the ones previously found in ESBL E. coli clones from diseased calves. The hypothesis that ESBL genes may distribute more abundantly in certain backgrounds of E. coli was also discussed. In all, as recently reported in the Netherlands, these results strongly suggest a recent increase in the prevalence of ESBL carriage in French veal calves, which should be considered one of the major ESBL reservoirs in food animals. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Deschamps J.-B.,Unite Epidemiologie | Calavas D.,Unite Epidemiologie | Mialet S.,VetAgro Sup | Gay E.,Unite Epidemiologie | And 2 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2013

The financial impact of condemnation for farmers and the importance of efficiency in the meat inspection process to guarantee food safety are well known. Identifying farm-level risk factors for condemnation are useful in order to find a way for farmers to potentially reduce their condemnation rates and to build a risk-based farm classification for veterinary services to target both meat inspection and farms inspections. To our knowledge, this has not yet been done, probably due to a lack of available meat inspection data.A preliminary investigation was performed through a case-control study on 36 French farms, from a dairy production region to identify farm-level risk factors for high condemnation rates (i.e. more than 45% of cattle with at least one portion of the carcass condemned). Multivariable exact logistic regression was performed to take into account the small sample size. The final model identified two significant risk factors. The odds of having a high condemnation rate was at least twice as greater for farmers who did not adhere to the quality charter of an international retailer and was significantly higher when the most qualified worker on the farm had a degree in agriculture. This latter effect was unexpected and is reviewed in the discussion section. The protective effect of the quality charter could be explained by the annual control of farms performed to guarantee compliance with good farming practices in the adhering farms. It led us to believe that compliance with well known good farming practices could be a way for farmers to reduce their condemnation rates. This study is a preliminary investigation performed on a small sample size of farms that were mainly dairy farms. It is a first step for further investigations that need to be done on this topic at a larger scale to fill the current lack of knowledge. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Perrin J.-B.,Unite Epidemiologie | Perrin J.-B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Ducrot C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Vinard J.-L.,Unite Epidemiologie | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2012

Census and disposal data provide a multipurpose source of information on cattle mortality. The retrospective analyses we conducted on the data gathered in the National Cattle Register produced relevant information for describing and modelling the cattle mortality baseline and evaluating the impact of the 2007-2008 Blue Tongue epidemic on the French cattle population. This work was conducted retrospectively but showed that monitoring cattle mortality near real time could help detecting unexpected events. We are thus currently working on a timely and automated system to monitor cadaver disposal requests received by rendering plants, thanks to a data interchange system recently implemented between the Ministry of Agriculture and the fallen stock companies. Besides technical and methodological challenges, using these data for surveillance purposes raises epidemiological questions that still need to be answered. The question remains notably as to whether an abnormal increased mortality is a sensitive and timely signal for detecting unexpected health events. It appears also very challenging to identify the most adequate surveillance scale (time, space and population) and the most adequate anomaly detection algorithms to apply when the characteristics of the signals to be detected (shape, amplitude, etc.) are not known a priori. In Human health, similar systems have not yet proven their ability to detect unexpected events earlier than classical surveillance systems currently in place, but they have already demonstrated their value for real time assessment of identified and potentially dangerous events. Combined with traditional surveillance systems, we think that monitoring routinely collected data could improve the surveillance of the animal population health. Even if not used for detection purposes, cattle mortality monitoring could be used to rapidly produce information on the impact and evolution of identified events, what would facilitate decision-making regarding management measures and improve the communication. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Dupuy C.,Unite Epidemiologie | Dupuy C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Morlot C.,University of Lyon | Gilot-Fromont E.,University of Lyon | And 7 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2014

Bovine cysticercosis is a foodborne disease caused by the cestode Taenia saginata with cattle as the intermediate host and humans as the final host. This disease is responsible for direct financial losses for farmers. It is also economically important because human infestation through raw or undercooked meat consumption can have a negative impact on the confidence the consumer has in the food industry. This study aimed to determine the apparent and true prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in France and describe the locations of identified cysticercosis lesions. The study sample included 4,564,065 cattle slaughtered in 2010 in France, among which 6491 were detected as harbouring cysticercosis lesions using the current EU meat inspection process. The overall apparent prevalence (including both viable and degenerated cysticerci) was estimated at 0.142% [0.142-0.143]. The true overall prevalence defined as the estimation of the prevalence after taking into account the sensitivity of meat inspection (detection fraction) was 1.23% [0.83-1.93]. The true prevalence of cattle with at least one viable cysticercus was 0.113% [0.076-0.189]. Taking into account both our results and those of a previous study on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in France, we estimated that one carcass could infest an average of 8-20 individuals. The spatial distribution of viable cysticerci showed that the highest apparent prevalence was found in eastern France. This study, the largest survey ever conducted on bovine cysticercosis in France, indicated a low but spatially heterogeneous prevalence of the parasite among the cattle population. Considering French eating habits, according to which it is not uncommon to consume undercooked meat, the possibility of humans being infested even though viable cysticerci are not detected during meat inspection is high. Increasing the detection sensitivity of meat inspection through the use of a risk-based meat inspection procedure should improve prevention of human infestation. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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