Unite Epidemiologie

Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France

Unite Epidemiologie

Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France
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Deschamps J.-B.,Unite Epidemiologie | Calavas D.,Unite Epidemiologie | Mialet S.,VetAgro Sup | Gay E.,Unite Epidemiologie | And 2 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2013

The financial impact of condemnation for farmers and the importance of efficiency in the meat inspection process to guarantee food safety are well known. Identifying farm-level risk factors for condemnation are useful in order to find a way for farmers to potentially reduce their condemnation rates and to build a risk-based farm classification for veterinary services to target both meat inspection and farms inspections. To our knowledge, this has not yet been done, probably due to a lack of available meat inspection data.A preliminary investigation was performed through a case-control study on 36 French farms, from a dairy production region to identify farm-level risk factors for high condemnation rates (i.e. more than 45% of cattle with at least one portion of the carcass condemned). Multivariable exact logistic regression was performed to take into account the small sample size. The final model identified two significant risk factors. The odds of having a high condemnation rate was at least twice as greater for farmers who did not adhere to the quality charter of an international retailer and was significantly higher when the most qualified worker on the farm had a degree in agriculture. This latter effect was unexpected and is reviewed in the discussion section. The protective effect of the quality charter could be explained by the annual control of farms performed to guarantee compliance with good farming practices in the adhering farms. It led us to believe that compliance with well known good farming practices could be a way for farmers to reduce their condemnation rates. This study is a preliminary investigation performed on a small sample size of farms that were mainly dairy farms. It is a first step for further investigations that need to be done on this topic at a larger scale to fill the current lack of knowledge. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Dupuy C.,Unite Epidemiologie | Dupuy C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bronner A.,Unite Epidemiologie | Watson E.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA Weybridge | And 7 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2013

Within the current context that favours the emergence of new diseases, syndromic surveillance (SyS) appears increasingly more relevant tool for the early detection of unexpected health events. The Triple-S project (Syndromic Surveillance Systems in Europe), co-financed by the European Commission, was launched in September 2010 for a three year period to promote both human and animal health SyS in European countries. Objectives of the project included performing an inventory of current and planned European animal health SyS systems and promoting knowledge transfer between SyS experts. This study presents and discusses the results of the Triple-S inventory of European veterinary SyS initiatives. European SyS systems were identified through an active process based on a questionnaire sent to animal health experts involved in SyS in Europe. Results were analyzed through a descriptive analysis and a multiple factor analysis (MFA) in order to establish a typology of the European SyS initiatives. Twenty seven European SyS systems were identified from twelve countries, at different levels of development, from project phase to active systems. Results of this inventory showed a real interest of European countries for SyS but also highlighted the novelty of this field. This survey highlighted the diversity of SyS systems in Europe in terms of objectives, population targeted, data providers, indicators monitored. For most SyS initiatives, statistical analysis of surveillance results was identified as a limitation in using the data. MFA results distinguished two types of systems. The first one belonged to the private sector, focused on companion animals and had reached a higher degree of achievement. The second one was based on mandatory collected data, targeted livestock species and is still in an early project phase. The exchange of knowledge between human and animal health sectors was considered useful to enhance SyS. In the same way that SyS is complementary to traditional surveillance, synergies between human and animal health SyS could be an added value, most notably to enhance timeliness, sensitivity and help interpreting non-specific signals. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Dupuy C.,Unite Epidemiologie | Dupuy C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Demont P.,Unite qualite et securite des aliments | Ducrot C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2014

The proportion of cattle with offal, partial or whole carcass condemnation could be a useful indicator for animal health syndromic surveillance purposes. It requires first highlighting the factors associated with condemnation in order to include them in a modeling process. This study aims to identify and quantify these factors. It was based on data from ten French cattle slaughterhouses from 2006 to 2010 (n=1,439,868 cattle). Multivariable multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed. Sex, age and slaughterhouse were the main effects for offal, partial and whole carcass condemnation and have to be taken into account when implementing syndromic surveillance systems based on meat inspection data. The presence of an error in cattle identification was identified as a potential indicator for a higher risk of condemnation and should be explored as a potential factor for risk-based meat inspection. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Dupuy C.,Unite Epidemiologie | Dupuy C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Morignat E.,Unite Epidemiologie | Maugey X.,Directorate General of Armaments | And 5 more authors.
BMC Veterinary Research | Year: 2013

Background: The slaughterhouse is a central processing point for food animals and thus a source of both demographic data (age, breed, sex) and health-related data (reason for condemnation and condemned portions) that are not available through other sources. Using these data for syndromic surveillance is therefore tempting. However many possible reasons for condemnation and condemned portions exist, making the definition of relevant syndromes challenging.The objective of this study was to determine a typology of cattle with at least one portion of the carcass condemned in order to define syndromes. Multiple factor analysis (MFA) in combination with clustering methods was performed using both health-related data and demographic data.Results: Analyses were performed on 381,186 cattle with at least one portion of the carcass condemned among the 1,937,917 cattle slaughtered in ten French abattoirs. Results of the MFA and clustering methods led to 12 clusters considered as stable according to year of slaughter and slaughterhouse. One cluster was specific to a disease of public health importance (cysticercosis). Two clusters were linked to the slaughtering process (fecal contamination of heart or lungs and deterioration lesions). Two clusters respectively characterized by chronic liver lesions and chronic peritonitis could be linked to diseases of economic importance to farmers. Three clusters could be linked respectively to reticulo-pericarditis, fatty liver syndrome and farmer's lung syndrome, which are related to both diseases of economic importance to farmers and herd management issues. Three clusters respectively characterized by arthritis, myopathy and Dark Firm Dry (DFD) meat could notably be linked to animal welfare issues. Finally, one cluster, characterized by bronchopneumonia, could be linked to both animal health and herd management issues.Conclusion: The statistical approach of combining multiple factor analysis with cluster analysis showed its relevance for the detection of syndromes using available large and complex slaughterhouse data. The advantages of this statistical approach are to i) define groups of reasons for condemnation based on meat inspection data, ii) help grouping reasons for condemnation among a list of various possible reasons for condemnation for which a consensus among experts could be difficult to reach, iii) assign each animal to a single syndrome which allows the detection of changes in trends of syndromes to detect unusual patterns in known diseases and emergence of new diseases. © 2013 Dupuy et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Perrin J.-B.,Unite Epidemiologie | Perrin J.-B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Ducrot C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Vinard J.-L.,Unite Epidemiologie | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2012

Census and disposal data provide a multipurpose source of information on cattle mortality. The retrospective analyses we conducted on the data gathered in the National Cattle Register produced relevant information for describing and modelling the cattle mortality baseline and evaluating the impact of the 2007-2008 Blue Tongue epidemic on the French cattle population. This work was conducted retrospectively but showed that monitoring cattle mortality near real time could help detecting unexpected events. We are thus currently working on a timely and automated system to monitor cadaver disposal requests received by rendering plants, thanks to a data interchange system recently implemented between the Ministry of Agriculture and the fallen stock companies. Besides technical and methodological challenges, using these data for surveillance purposes raises epidemiological questions that still need to be answered. The question remains notably as to whether an abnormal increased mortality is a sensitive and timely signal for detecting unexpected health events. It appears also very challenging to identify the most adequate surveillance scale (time, space and population) and the most adequate anomaly detection algorithms to apply when the characteristics of the signals to be detected (shape, amplitude, etc.) are not known a priori. In Human health, similar systems have not yet proven their ability to detect unexpected events earlier than classical surveillance systems currently in place, but they have already demonstrated their value for real time assessment of identified and potentially dangerous events. Combined with traditional surveillance systems, we think that monitoring routinely collected data could improve the surveillance of the animal population health. Even if not used for detection purposes, cattle mortality monitoring could be used to rapidly produce information on the impact and evolution of identified events, what would facilitate decision-making regarding management measures and improve the communication. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Valat C.,Unite Antibioresistance et Virulence Bacteriennes | Auvray F.,Anses Laboratoire Of Securite Des Aliments Of Maisons Alfort | Forest K.,Unite Antibioresistance et Virulence Bacteriennes | Metayer V.,Unite Antibioresistance et Virulence Bacteriennes | And 4 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

In line with recent reports of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in Escherichia coli isolates of highly virulent serotypes, such as O104:H4, we investigated the distribution of phylogroups (A, B1, B2, D) and virulence factor (VF)-encoding genes in 204 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from diarrheic cattle. ESBL genes, VFs, and phylogroups were identified by PCR and a commercial DNA array (Alere, France). ESBL genes belonged mostly to the CTX-M-1 (65.7%) and CTX-M-9 (27.0%) groups, whereas those of the CTX-M-2 and TEM groups were much less represented (3.9% and 3.4%, respectively). One ESBL isolate was stx1 and eae positive and belonged to a major enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serotype (O111:H8). Two other isolates were eae positive but stx negative; one of these had serotype O26:H11. ESBL isolates belonged mainly to phylogroup A (55.4%) and, to lesser extents, to phylogroups D (25.5%) and B1 (15.6%), whereas B2 strains were quasi-absent (1/204). The number of VFs was significantly higher in phylogroup B1 than in phylogroups A (P=0.04) and D (P=0.02). Almost all of the VFs detected were found in CTX-M-1 isolates, whereas only 64.3% and 33.3% of them were found in CTX-M-9 and CTX-M-2 isolates, respectively. These results indicated that the widespread dissemination of the blaCTX-M genes within the E. coli population from cattle still spared the subpopulation of EHEC/Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC) isolates. In contrast to other reports on non-ESBL-producing isolates from domestic animals, B1 was not the main phylogroup identified. However, B1 was found to be the most virulent phylogroup, suggesting host-specific distribution of virulence determinants among phylogenetic groups. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

Dupuy C.,Unite Epidemiologie | Dupuy C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Morignat E.,Unite Epidemiologie | Dorea F.,National Veterinary Institute SVA | And 3 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to assess the performance of several algorithms for outbreak detection based on weekly proportions of whole carcass condemnations. Data from one French slaughterhouse over the 2005-2009 period were used (177 098 slaughtered cattle, 0.97% of whole carcass condemnations). The method involved three steps: (i) preparation of an outbreak-free historical baseline over 5 years, (ii) simulation of over 100 years of baseline time series with injection of artificial outbreak signals with several shapes, durations and magnitudes, and (iii) assessment of the performance (sensitivity, specificity, outbreak detection precocity) of several algorithms to detect these artificial outbreak signals. The algorithms tested included the Shewart p chart, confidence interval of the negative binomial model, the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA); and cumulative sum (CUSUM). The highest sensitivity was obtained using a negative binomial algorithm and the highest specificity with CUSUM or EWMA. EWMA sensitivity was too low to select this algorithm for efficient outbreak detection. CUSUM's performance was complementary to the negative binomial algorithm. The use of both algorithms on real data for a prospective investigation of the whole carcass condemnation rate as a syndromic surveillance indicator could be relevant. Shewart could also be a good option considering its high sensitivity and simplicity of implementation. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015.

Martinez M.-J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Durand B.,Unite Epidemiologie | Calavas D.,Unite Epidemiologie | Ducrot C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2010

Demonstrating disease freedom is becoming important in different fields including animal disease control. Most methods consider sampling only from a homogeneous population in which each animal has the same probability of becoming infected. In this paper, we propose a new methodology to calculate the probability of detecting the disease if it is present in a heterogeneous population of small size with potentially different risk groups, differences in risk being defined using relative risks. To calculate this probability, for each possible arrangement of the infected animals in the different groups, the probability that all the animals tested are test-negative given this arrangement is multiplied by the probability that this arrangement occurs. The probability formula is developed using the assumption of a perfect test and hypergeometric sampling for finite small size populations. The methodology is applied to scrapie, a disease affecting small ruminants and characterized in sheep by a strong genetic susceptibility defining different risk groups. It illustrates that the genotypes of the tested animals influence heavily the confidence level of detecting scrapie. The results present the statistical power for substantiating disease freedom in a small heterogeneous population as a function of the design prevalence, the structure of the sample tested, the structure of the herd and the associated relative risks. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Unite Epidemiologie, University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, French National Institute for Agricultural Research, VetAgroSup Campus Veterinaire and Directorate General of Armaments
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Preventive veterinary medicine | Year: 2014

Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease due to Cysticercus bovis. This study aimed to identify factors that could have an impact on the prevalence of cysticercosis and to use them to build standardized indicators of prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed on data from 4,564,065 cattle (91.3% of the cattle population slaughtered in France in 2010) among which 6491 cattle (0.14%) were found to harbor at least one lesion of cysticercosis (including 611 cattle harboring viable cysts, 0.01%). Two multivariate logistic models were fit to the data using as outcome variables either the presence or absence of viable cysts and the presence or absence of cysts whatever their level of development. Age and sex were identified as the main factors influencing bovine cysticercosis prevalence and were used for the construction of standardized prevalence and standardized cysticercosis rate. To illustrate the use of such indicators, they were calculated for the first and second semester of 2010 and for two different areas in France. The differences between raw prevalence and standardized prevalence highlight the use of standardized indicators for comparisons of prevalence between different areas and time periods as the structure of the slaughtered populations differ considerably from one to another.

Haenni M.,Unite Antibioresistance et Virulence Bacteriennes | Chatre P.,Unite Antibioresistance et Virulence Bacteriennes | Metayer V.,Unite Antibioresistance et Virulence Bacteriennes | Bour M.,Unite Antibioresistance et Virulence Bacteriennes | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2014

Food-producing animals have become a growing reservoir of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria. In cattle, veal calves are exposed to high amounts of antibiotics but ESBL prevalence data are still limited compared to other food sectors such as poultry production. Based on the investigation of 491 veal calves from different slaughtering batches at 12 abattoirs, this study shows a prevalence of 29.4% of ESBL producers in the faecal flora of veal calves in France in 2012. A variety of blaCTX-M genes was found, reflecting possible diverse pathways of dissemination in cattle. Another major conclusion is the comparison of the ESBL prevalence in the dominant versus sub-dominant Escherichia coli population of the same calves (1% and 29.4%, respectively). Also, the ESBL E. coli clones in the sub-dominant flora mostly differed from the non-ESBL dominant E. coli clones of the same calves. Of note, the distribution of blaCTX-M genes and E. coli phylogroups were similar to the ones previously found in ESBL E. coli clones from diseased calves. The hypothesis that ESBL genes may distribute more abundantly in certain backgrounds of E. coli was also discussed. In all, as recently reported in the Netherlands, these results strongly suggest a recent increase in the prevalence of ESBL carriage in French veal calves, which should be considered one of the major ESBL reservoirs in food animals. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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