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Hôpital-Camfrout, France

Neven B.,Unite dImmuno Hematologie Pediatrique
Blood | Year: 2013

Monogenic interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) deficiencies cause very early onset severe inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we report that 5 patients with an IL-10R1 (n = 1) or IL-10R2 (n = 4) deficiency developed B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma between the ages of 5 and 6 years (which was recurrent in 1 patient). These lymphomas had some of the characteristics of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and contained monoclonal, Epstein-Barr virus-negative germinal center B cells. The tumors displayed a remarkably homogeneous signature, with original activation of the nuclear factor κB pathway and a decrease in intratumor T-cell infiltration. Hence, IL-10R deficiency is associated with a high risk of developing B-cell lymphoma. Our results revealed an unexpected role of the IL-10R pathway in lymphomagenesis. Source

Neven B.,Unite dImmuno Hematologie Pediatrique | Neven B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Bruneau J.,University of Paris Descartes | Stolzenberg M.-C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 25 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2014

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) caused by impaired FAS-mediated apoptosis of lymphocytes is characterized by lymphoproliferation, autoimmunity, but also an increased risk of invasive bacterial infection, notably following splenectomy. We surveyed a cohort of 100 ALPS patients (including 33 splenectomized) and found that 12 (10 splenectomized) had experienced 23 invasive bacterial infections mainly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. This vulnerability was associated with evidence of defective B-cell function characterized by low serum immunoglobulin (Ig) M, low IgM antibody production in response to S pneumoniae following nonconjugated immunization, and low blood memory B-cells counts (including marginal zone [MZ] B-cell counts). This immunodeficiency strongly correlated with intensity of lymphoproliferation. Spleen sections from 9 ALPS patients revealed double-negative T-cell (DN-T) infiltration of the MZ, which was depleted of B cells. MZ in ALPS patients contained an abnormally thick layer of MAdCAM-1(+) stromal cells and an excess of DN-Ts. DN-Ts were shown to express MAdCAM-1 ligand, the α4β7 integrin. These observations suggest that accumulating DN-Ts are trapped within stromal cell meshwork and interfere with correct localization of MZB cells. Similar observations were made in spleens of fas-deficient mice. Our data revealed an unexpected mechanism by which ALPS results in anti-polysaccharide IgM antibody production-specific defect. Splenectomy should be avoided. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

Turvey S.E.,University of British Columbia | Durandy A.,National Health Research Institute | Durandy A.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Fischer A.,National Health Research Institute | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2014

Next-generation DNA sequencing has accelerated the genetic characterization of many human primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). These discoveries can be lifesaving for the affected patients and also provide a unique opportunity to study the effect of specific genes on human immune function. In the past 18 months, a number of independent groups have begun to define novel PIDs caused by defects in the caspase recruitment domain family, member 11 (CARD11)-B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 10 (BCL10)-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1 [CBM]) signalosome complex. The CBM complex forms an essential molecular link between the triggering of cell-surface antigen receptors and nuclear factor κB activation. Germline mutations affecting the CBM complex are now recognized as the cause of novel combined immunodeficiency phenotypes, which all share abnormal nuclear factor κB activation and dysregulated B-cell development as defining features. For this "Current perspectives" article, we have engaged experts in both basic biology and clinical immunology to capture the worldwide experience in recognizing and managing patients with PIDs caused by CBM complex mutations. © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Source

Thiel U.,TU Munich | Koscielniak E.,Pediatric 5 Oncology | Blaeschke F.,TU Munich | Grunewald T.G.P.,TU Munich | And 23 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Background:Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) may provide donor cytotoxic T cell-/NK cell-mediated disease control in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). However, little is known about the prevalence of graft-vs-RMS effects and only a few case experiences have been reported.Methods:We evaluated allo-SCT outcomes of 30 European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT)-registered patients with advanced RMS regarding toxicity, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) after allo-SCT. Twenty patients were conditioned with reduced intensity and ten with high-dose chemotherapy. Twenty-three patients were transplanted with HLA-matched and seven with HLA-mismatched grafts. Three patients additionally received donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs). Median follow-up was 9 months.Results:Three-year OS was 20% (s.e.±8%) with a median survival time of 12 months. Cumulative risk of progression was 67% (s.e.±10%) and 11% (s.e.±6%) for death of complications. Thirteen patients developed acute graft-vs-host disease (GvHD) and five developed chronic GvHD. Eighteen patients died of disease and four of complications. Eight patients survived in complete remission (CR) (median: 44 months). No patients with residual disease before allo-SCT were converted to CR.Conclusion:The use of allo-SCT in patients with advanced RMS is currently experimental. In a subset of patients, it may constitute a valuable approach for consolidating CR, but this needs to be validated in prospective trials. © 2013 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved. Source

Bougnoux M.-E.,Service de Bacteriologie Virologie Parasitologie et Hygiene | Mouy R.,Unite dImmuno Hematologie Pediatrique | Gougerot-Pocidalo M.-A.,HOpital Bichat Claude Bernard | Gougerot-Pocidalo M.-A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 14 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2011

Background: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited phagocytic disorder resulting in an increased susceptibility to infections including invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) and inflammatory complications. This study is aimed at assessing the incidence, prevalence, and outcome of IFDs among CGD patients followed in France. Methods: CGD patients were identified through the French national registry for primary immunodeficiencies (PID) held by the French national reference Centre of PID (Centre de Référence Déficits Immunitaires Héréditaires), which comprises a total of 3083 patients including 155 with CGD followed between 1976 and 2008. A questionnaire was filled out for each episode of IFD. Information retrieved included a description of the IFD using the 2008 European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group IFD definition criteria. Results: Of CGD patients, 42.6% (66/155) developed at least 1 episode of IFD. Overall incidence of IFD was 0.040/patient-years (1862 patient-years of total follow-up). IFD incidence was found to be significant while receiving itraconazole prophylaxis compared with no prophylaxis (0.027 vs. 0.053 IFD/patient-years; P < 0.01). Median age at IFD diagnosis was 6.5 years (3.3-11.3). The most common fungal genus was Aspergillus sp. accounting for 40% of all IFDs. Of the IFDs, 42.5% were proven, 30.0% probable, and 27.5% possible. Of all IFD episodes, 52.5% were treated by antifungal monotherapy, mostly by amphotericin B. Survival was reduced in IFD patients compared with those without it (log-rank = 0.04). Conclusions: IFDs are a frequent and life-threatening complication in CGD patients. Itraconazole significantly reduces its incidence and should be recommended in absence of better alternatives. © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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