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Booth C.,Institute of Child Health | Gilmour K.C.,Institute of Child Health | Veys P.,Institute of Child Health | Gennery A.R.,Northumbria University | And 43 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP1) is a rare immunodeficiency characterized by severe immune dysregulation and caused by mutations in the SH2D1A/SAP gene. Clinical manifestations are varied and include hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), lymphoma and dysgammaglobulinemia, often triggered by Epstein-Barr virus infection. Historical data published before improved treatment regimens shows very poor outcome. We describe a large cohort of 91 genetically defined XLP1 patients collected from centers worldwide and report characteristics and outcome data for 43 patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and 48 untransplanted patients. The advent of better treatment strategies for HLH and malignancy has greatly reduced mortality for these patients, but HLH still remains the most severe feature of XLP1. Survival after allogeneic HSCT is 81.4% with good immune reconstitution in the large majority of patients and little evidence of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease. However, survival falls to 50% in patients with HLH as a feature of disease. Untransplanted patients have an overall survival of 62.5% with the majority on immunoglobulin replacement therapy, but the outcome for those untransplanted after HLH is extremely poor (18.8%). HSCT should be undertaken in all patients with HLH, because outcome without transplant is extremely poor. The outcome of HSCT for other manifestations of XLP1 is very good, and if HSCT is not undertaken immediately, patients must be monitored closely for evidence of disease progression. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology.

Wehr C.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Gennery A.R.,Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals Foundation Trust | Lindemans C.,Pediatric Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation Program | Schulz A.,University of Ulm | And 37 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2015

Background Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is usually well controlled with immunoglobulin substitution and immunomodulatory drugs. A subgroup of patients has a complicated disease course with high mortality. For these patients, investigation of more invasive, potentially curative treatments, such as allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), is warranted. Objective We sought to define the outcomes of HSCT for patients with CVID. Methods Retrospective data were collected from 14 centers worldwide on patients with CVID receiving HSCT between 1993 and 2012. Results Twenty-five patients with CVID, which was defined according to international criteria, aged 8 to 50 years at the time of transplantation were included in the study. The indication for HSCT was immunologic dysregulation in the majority of patients. The overall survival rate was 48%, and the survival rate for patients undergoing transplantation for lymphoma was 83%. The major causes of death were treatment-refractory graft-versus-host disease accompanied by poor immune reconstitution and infectious complications. Immunoglobulin substitution was stopped in 50% of surviving patients. In 92% of surviving patients, the condition constituting the indication for HSCT resolved. Conclusion This multicenter study demonstrated that HSCT in patients with CVID was beneficial in most surviving patients; however, there was a high mortality associated with the procedure. Therefore this therapeutic approach should only be considered in carefully selected patients in whom there has been extensive characterization of the immunologic and/or genetic defect underlying the CVID diagnosis. Criteria for patient selection, refinement of the transplantation protocol, and timing are needed for an improved outcome. © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

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