Pham T.,Marseille University Hospital Center |
Claudepierre P.,Service de Rhumatologie |
Constantin A.,Toulouse University Hospital Center |
de Bandt M.,Unite de Rhumatologie |
And 16 more authors.
Joint Bone Spine | Year: 2010
Objectives: :. To develop fact sheets about tocilizumab, in order to assist physicians in the management of patients with inflammatory joint disease. Methods: :1.selection by a committee of rheumatology experts of the main topics of interest for which fact sheets were desirable;2.identification and review of publications relevant to each topic;3.development of fact sheets based on three levels of evidence: evidencebased medicine, official recommendations, and expert opinion. The 20 experts were rheumatologists and invited specialists in other fields, and they had extensive experience with the management of RA. They were members of the CRI (Club Rhumatismes et Inflammation), a section of the Société Francaise de Rhumatologie. Each fact sheet was revised by several experts and the overall process was coordinated by three experts. Results: :. Several topics of major interest were selected: contraindications of tocilizumab; the management of adverse effects and concomitant diseases that may develop during tocilizumab therapy; and the management of everyday situations such as pregnancy, surgery, and immunizations. After a review of the literature and discussions among experts, a consensus was developed about the content of the fact sheets presented here. These fact sheets focus on several points:1.in RA, initiation and monitoring of tocilizumab therapy, management of patients with specific past histories, and specific clinical situations such as pregnancy;2.diseases other than RA, such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis;3.models of letters for informing the rheumatologist and general practitioner;4.and patient information. Conclusion: :. These tocilizumab fact sheets built on evidence-based medicine and expert opinion will serve as a practical tool for assisting physicians who manage patients on tocilizumab therapy. They will be available continuously at www.cri-net.com and updated at appropriate intervals. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Salmon D.,University of Paris Descartes |
Bani-Sadr F.,University of Paris Descartes |
Loko M.-A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Stitou H.,Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales |
And 12 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2012
Background & Aims: Compared to HCV-mono-infected patients, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurs at younger age in HIV/HCV-co-infected patients, is markedly more advanced at diagnosis, is less amenable to curative treatment, and has a more severe outcome. The aim of this study was to identify factors predictive of HCC occurrence in a large cohort of HIV/HCV-co-infected patients with cirrhosis. Methods: This study involved 244 HIV/HCV-co-infected patients included in the ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH cohort, who had HCV-related cirrhosis (clinically or histologically proven cirrhosis, or liver stiffness ≥12.5 kPa) and no signs of HCC at baseline. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify factors associated with HCC occurrence. Results: During a median follow-up of 2.6 (IQR, 1.8-3.5) years, 21 patients (8.6%) developed HCC. Diagnosis of HCC was based on histology in 5 patients (24%) and non-invasive criteria in 16 patients (76%). In univariate analyses, the following factors were related to HCC occurrence: age, previous cirrhosis decompensation, a HOMA value >3.8 (patients with treated diabetes were excluded from the HOMA calculation), a lower platelet count, a lower prothrombin level, and higher alpha-fetoprotein levels. The HOMA value was >3.8 at baseline in 66.7% of patients who developed HCC and in 35.3% of the remaining patients (p = 0.016). In multivariate analysis, age over 50 years (adjusted RR 3.2, 95% CI 1.2-9.0; p = 0.02) and a HOMA value >3.8 (adjusted RR 3.4, 95% CI 1.1-10.3; p = 0.03) remained significantly associated with HCC occurrence. Conclusions: As in HCV-mono-infected patients with HCV-related cirrhosis, insulin resistance appears to play a key role in HCC occurrence in HCV/HIV-co-infected patients with cirrhosis. This finding calls for specific screening strategies for patients with a particularly high risk of developing HCC. © 2011 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Service de Virologie, Service de Biochimie and Unite dHepatologie
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of viral hepatitis | Year: 2016
The increasing incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Western countries requests reliable tumour markers for preclinical diagnosis. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP), in comparison with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in a French cohort using a new analyser. One hundred and sixty-two patients with virus-related cirrhosis (46 HCC patients and 116 controls) were recruited in this retrospective proof-of-concept study. DCP was measured on new Lumipulse
Abravanel F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Abravanel F.,Toulouse University Hospital Center |
Raymond S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Raymond S.,Toulouse University Hospital Center |
And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Background and Aims: Hepatic stellate cells, the major producers of extracellular matrix in the liver, and hepatocytes bear CXCR4 and CCR5, the two main co-receptors for entry of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In vitro studies suggest that HIV-envelope proteins can modulate the replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and fibrogenesis. We investigated the influence of HIV tropism on liver fibrosis and the concentration of HCV RNA in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. Methods: We used a phenotypic assay to assess HIV tropism in 172 HCV-HIV co-infected patients: one group (75 patients) had mild fibrosis (score ≤F2) and the other (97 patients) had severe fibrosis (score >F2). We also assessed the relationship between HIV tropism and HCV RNA concentration in all these patients. We also followed 34 of these patients for 3 years to determine the evolution of HIV tropism and liver fibrosis, estimated by liver stiffness. Results: Initially, most patients (91.8%) received a potent antiretroviral therapy. CXCR4-using viruses were found in 29% of patients. The only factor associated with a CXCR4-using virus infection in multivariate analysis was the nadir of CD4 cells: <200/mm3 (OR: 3.94, 95%CI: 1.39-11.14). The median HCV RNA concentrations in patients infected with R5 viruses, those with dual-mixed viruses and those with X4 viruses, were all similar. The prevalence of CXCR4-using viruses in patients with mild fibrosis (≤F2) (31%) and those with severe fibrosis (F3-F4) (28%, p = 0.6) was similar. Longitudinal analyses showed that the presence of CXCR4-using viruses did not increase the likelihood of fibrosis progression, evaluated by measuring liver stiffness. Conclusions: The presence of CXCR4-using viruses in patients receiving a potent antiretroviral therapy does not influence HCV RNA concentration or liver fibrosis. © 2012 Abravanel et al.
Roulot D.,Unite dHepatologie
Liver International | Year: 2013
Liver test abnormalities are frequent in adult patients with Turner syndrome, corresponding to various pathophysiological mechanisms. Steatosis, steatofibrosis and steatohepatitis are the most frequently reported lesions, caused by metabolic disorders, which are commonly related to overweight. Marked architectural changes, including nodular regenerative hyperplasia, multiple focal nodular hyperplasia and cirrhosis, found in some patients, are associated with a risk of severe liver-related complications. Architectural changes are often observed and are associated with vascular disorders caused by congenitally abnormal vessels. Finally, small bile duct alterations resembling sclerosing cholangitis occur in several patients. Oestrogen replacement therapy does not cause liver toxicity in patients with Turner syndrome and is not contraindicated in case of elevated liver enzymes. Moreover, in recent studies, oestrogen therapy was reported to improve liver function tests. Because of the wide spectrum of potential liver injuries that may occur in Turner syndrome patients, a regular screening of liver enzymes is recommended for early detection and treatment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Vallet-Pichard A.,Unite dHepatologie |
Mallet V.,Unite dHepatologie |
Pol S.,Unite dHepatologie
Seminars in Liver Disease | Year: 2012
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a clinicopathologic syndrome that includes a range of disorders associated with fatty liver from steatosis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, defined by the presence of liver fat accumulation exceeding 5% of hepatocytes in the absence of other causes of liver disease such as alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, or any other specific etiology. Half the patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who undergo additional testing for unexplained liver test abnormalities may suffer from NAFLD, which is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. In HIV-infected patients, NAFLD can result from the HIV itself, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and/or lipodystrophy. Evaluation of the liver impact of NAFLD remains mainly based on liver biopsy, but numerous noninvasive procedures are under evaluation. In HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV-) coinfected patients, steatosis seems more frequent and severe by comparison with HCV-monoinfected patients, and is associated with significant liver fibrosis, which may contribute to the more rapid progression of liver disease. First-line treatment of NAFLD is mainly based on the adequate management of the metabolic syndrome, including lifestyle changes. Specific therapeutic approaches are under investigation. Copyright © 2012 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.
Vallet-Pichard A.,Unite dhepatologie |
Vallet-Pichard A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Vallet-Pichard A.,University of Paris Descartes |
Pol S.,Unite dhepatologie |
And 2 more authors.
Nephrologie et Therapeutique | Year: 2015
Chronic infections by hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) result in diagnosis and therapeutic issues in dialysis and kidney recipients patients. The exposure to nosocomial, including blood transfusion, risk explains the high prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in this setting. Chronic infection reduces the survival of both patients and allografts, including a specific risk of de novo glomerulonephritis. Cirrhosis was considered as a contra-indication to renal transplantation given the high risk of decompensation and death, questionning the indication of a combined liver and kidney transplantation. Thus, it is mandatory to screen HBV and HCV markers in all dialysis patients, whether or not they are candidates to transplantation. Liver biopsy allows evaluating the severity of the liver disease since the noninvasive markers of fibrosis appear to be less accurate in "renal" patients than in the general population and to better define antiviral therapeutic indications. HCV treatment was mainly based on pegylated interferon α (and low doses of ribavirin), which is contra-indicated in kidney recipients given the risk of graft rejection; HCV treatment is now based on the use of oral direct acting antivirals, which are very potent and well tolerated. HBV replication is now easily suppressed by second-generation nucleos(t)tidic analogues (entecavir and tenofovir), which will be indicated in all the dialysis patients with significant fibrosis (F2,3 or 4 according to the Metavir scoring system) and in any candidate to renal transplantation and to any HBsAg-positive kidney recipients. The best treatment remains preventive by anti-HBV vaccination for HBV and by the respect of universal hygiene rules for HCV. © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie.
PubMed | Unite dHepatologie
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Therapeutic advances in infectious disease | Year: 2014
The treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin leads to a sustained virologic response in around 50% of patients with HCV genotype 1, 65% with HCV genotype 4, 75% with HCV genotype 3 and around 80% with HCV genotype 2. A better understanding of the HCV lifecycle has resulted in the development of several potential direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) targeting viral proteins [NS3/4A protease inhibitors, NS5B nucleos(t)idic and non-nucleos(t)idic polymerase inhibitors, NS5A replication complex inhibitors]. This review summarizes the main clinical data for the combinations of oral DAAs. DAAs, either in combination with pegylated interferon alpha or in interferon-free regimens, have demonstrated a high level of antiviral efficacy and a generally well-tolerated safety profile in treatment-nave patients and in prior nonresponders to pegylated interferon alpha/ribavirin. Oral combination of new DAAs is likely to become the standard of care for chronic HCV in treatment-nave or treatment-experienced patients. However, most studies so far have included small numbers of easy-to-treat patients with short post-treatment periods for defining the sustained virologic response. Extension of the number of treated patients (including difficult-to-treat patients, i.e. patients infected with genotype 3, who failed to respond to first-generation protease inhibitors or with cirrhosis as well as immunocompromised patients) and of the post-treatment follow up in a real-life setting could significantly worsen the rate of recovery. In these difficult-to-treat patients, the rate of virologic cure with new DAAs could be lower than expected and consequently interferons may be still necessary in combination with the new drugs.
PubMed | Unite dHepatologie
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver | Year: 2012
Liver test abnormalities are frequent in adult patients with Turner syndrome, corresponding to various pathophysiological mechanisms. Steatosis, steatofibrosis and steatohepatitis are the most frequently reported lesions, caused by metabolic disorders, which are commonly related to overweight. Marked architectural changes, including nodular regenerative hyperplasia, multiple focal nodular hyperplasia and cirrhosis, found in some patients, are associated with a risk of severe liver-related complications. Architectural changes are often observed and are associated with vascular disorders caused by congenitally abnormal vessels. Finally, small bile duct alterations resembling sclerosing cholangitis occur in several patients. Oestrogen replacement therapy does not cause liver toxicity in patients with Turner syndrome and is not contraindicated in case of elevated liver enzymes. Moreover, in recent studies, oestrogen therapy was reported to improve liver function tests. Because of the wide spectrum of potential liver injuries that may occur in Turner syndrome patients, a regular screening of liver enzymes is recommended for early detection and treatment.