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Saint-Antoine-de-Breuilh, France

Calmus Y.,Unite de Transplantation Hepatique | Kamar N.,Service de Nephrologie | Gugenheim J.,Service du Pr Mouiel | Duvoux C.,Service de Chirurgie Digestive | And 11 more authors.
Transplantation | Year: 2010

Background. Calcineurin inhibitor-induced renal dysfunction is a major problem in liver transplantation. Interleukin-2 receptor antagonist induction followed by delayed tacrolimus (Tac) administration may minimize the renal insult without compromising immunoprotection. Methods. This open, randomized, multicenter trial evaluated the benefit of daclizumab induction with delayed Tac on renal function at 6 months; an observational study was continued for 18 months. Liver transplant patients with a 12-hr serum creatinine (SrC) level less than 180 μmol/L received either delayed Tac with daclizumab induction (n=98) or standard Tac (n=101) both combined with mycophenolate mofetil and steroids. The primary endpoint was the incidence of SrC level more than 130 μmmol/L at 6 months. Results. The incidence was 22.4% with delayed Tac and 29.7% with standard Tac (P=ns), which remained unchanged at 12 months (21.6% and 23.9%) but increasing slightly at 24 months (29.0% and 32.9%), respectively. A post hoc analysis of renal function was done based on patients stratification by SrC at 12 hr (≤100μmol/L or >100 μmol/L) showing no difference in SrC values at 6 months regardless of the 12-hr values despite a trend toward better estimated glomerular filtration rate for patients with 12-hr value less than 100 μmol/L in the delayed Tac group. Biopsy-proven acute rejection was similar at 6 months (17.5% and 18.75%), 12 months (23.5% and 23.8%), and 24 months (24.5% and 25.7%), respectively. Patient and graft survival in both groups were comparable and good. Similar types and incidences of adverse events were reported in both groups at all time. CONCLUSIONS.: Delay of Tac does not benefit renal function in liver transplant recipients with a good renal function at baseline. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Bosch A.,Unite de Transplantation Hepatique | Dumortier J.,Unite de Transplantation Hepatique | Maucort-Boulch D.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Scoazec J.-Y.,Service Central dAnatomie et de Cytologie Pathologiques | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2015

Background & Aims Recurrence of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) after liver transplantation (LT) is not rare and can occasionally lead to severe graft dysfunction and retransplantation. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a safe and effective treatment for PBC. However, whether preventive administration of UDCA after LT could lower the incidence of PBC recurrence is unknown. Methods Patients transplanted for PBC in five French and Swiss centers from 1988 to 2010 were included. Most patients from a single center received UDCA (10-15 mg/kg/d) preventively. Recurrence of PBC was histologically defined from biopsies routinely performed at 1, 5, 10, and 15 years of follow-up, and at any time when clinically indicated. Results A total of 90 patients with a 1-year minimum follow-up were studied retrospectively, including 19 (21%) patients receiving preventive UDCA. The mean follow-up was 12 years. Recurrence was diagnosed in 48 (53%) patients. The recurrence rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 27%, 47%, and 61%, respectively. In a multivariate proportional hazards model adjusted for potential confounders and risk factors, preventive UDCA was the only factor affecting the risk of recurrence significantly (HR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.11-0.91). The 5, 10, and 15-year rates of recurrence were 11%, 21%, and 40%, respectively, under preventive UDCA, and 32%, 53%, and 70%, respectively, without preventive UDCA. Seven patients with recurrence (15%) progressed to cirrhosis, requiring retransplantation in one. However, neither recurrence nor preventive UDCA had a significant impact on survival. Conclusions Preventive treatment with UDCA reduces the risk of PBC recurrence after LT. Source

Vial Y.,Laboratoire Of Pharmacologie Toxicologie | Tod M.,Pharmacie | Tod M.,University of Lyon | Hornecker M.,Laboratoire Of Pharmacologie Toxicologie | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2011

Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is 98-99% bound to albumin. Because MPA is restrictively cleared and has a low extraction coefficient, increase in its free fraction related to decreased albumin binding results in lower total concentrations but unchanged unbound concentrations. Multiple factors, including hypoalbuminemia, impaired renal function, and accumulated mycophenolic acid glucuronide are known to reduce MPA protein binding. Little is known about the influence of fatty acids and bilirubin on this issue. By using quenching fluorescence method, the aims of this study were to investigate in vitro the binding properties of MPA, then the influence of myristic acid and bilirubin on MPA binding to albumin. The estimate of dissociation constant (Kd) of MPA was 13.2 [CI 95 12.7-13.8]μM. In the presence of myristic acid (concentration range 4-100μM), apparent Kd (Kd app) of MPA was approximately 1.5-10-fold greater. For myristic acid/albumin molar ratio reachable in clinical settings (2:1 and 5:1), Kd app of MPA rose about a factor 1.5 and 2.2, respectively. In the presence of bilirubin (concentration range 0.5-5μM), Kd app of MPA was approximately 1.5-5-fold greater than MPA Kd. For bilirubin/albumin molar ratio reachable in clinical settings (1:4 and 1:2), Kd app of MPA rose about a factor 1.5 and 1.9, respectively. These data suggest that hypertriglyceridemia or cholestasis may significantly increase MPA free fraction in clinical settings, thereby lowering MPA total concentration in plasma while the free concentration remains unchanged. These results may help to optimize the therapeutic drug monitoring of MPA. © Elsevier B.V. Source

Coilly A.,Center Hepato Biliaire | Coilly A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Coilly A.,University Paris - Sud | Calmus Y.,Service dHepatologie et de Transplantation Hepatique | And 7 more authors.
Liver Transplantation | Year: 2015

The efficacy and safety of tacrolimus (Tac) twice daily (bid) and once a day (qd) formulations are considered to be similar. However, the available information regarding initiation of Tac qd is sparse, and practical information is lacking. On the basis of a literature review, clinical efficacy, and safety trials, French experts in the liver transplantation field were asked to highlight pharmacokinetic (PK) differences between both formulations to assess efficacy and safety of the qd formulation in the context of de novo initiation or conversion and to provide their recommendations for initiation and day-to-day management of Tac qd. The same efficacy and safety profile is found for both immediate-release and prolonged-release Tac. PK differences carry on absorption because of the difference in formulations but not on metabolism or excretion. Tac qd offers a better reproducibility in exposure than Tac bid but is associated with an increased risk of disturbed absorption in case of a change in intestinal motility. The same therapeutic drug monitoring with Tac qd and bid could be applied, based on minimal concentration (trough level; Cmin), as there is a similar strong correlation between Cmin and the area under the curve (AUC) for both formulations. Different protocols for Tac qd initiation were described through numerous studies, except for early conversion: initiation on day 0, using 0.10 to 0.20 mg/kg/day as monotherapy, or lower dosages in case of concomitant immunosuppressant treatment or poor graft quality; early conversion from day 5 to 6 months, preferably before hospital discharge, using a 1 to 1.3 mg/kg/day schedule and with first Cmin assessment 48 hours after the conversion; and later conversion (>6 months posttransplantation) using a milligram-to-milligram dosage schedule, and with dose adjustment based on weekly Cmin measurement. Experts underline that an increase in treatment adherence was expected using Tac qd in liver recipients. In conclusion, Tac qd has the same efficacy and safety profile as Tac bid. De novo introduction or later conversion are well documented but could differ from day-to-day practice. Liver Transpl 21:1312-1321, 2015. © 2015 AASLD. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Source

Pissaia Jr. A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Aoudjehane L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Ben Othman S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Scatton O.,Unite de Transplantation Hepatique | And 6 more authors.
Transplantation Proceedings | Year: 2010

Background Hepatic fibrosis, an outcome of chronic liver diseases, is characterized by an accumulation of collagen, which is produced by activated human intrahepatic fibroblasts (HIF). Transforming growth factor (TGF) β is an important inducer of fibrogenesis, in collaboration with other cytokines, such as interleukin (IL) 4. IL-4 is overexpressed in severe recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation, exerting profibrotic effects. In contrast, cyclosporine (CsA) had been shown to decrease fibroblast activation and collagen production. We therefore investigated the effects of CsA on TGF-β and IL-4 profibrotic activities on HIF in vitro. Methods Isolated HIF were cultured without or with human TGF-β, human IL-4, CsA, or combined TGF- β+CsA or IL-4+CsA. We performed real-time polymerase chain reaction for collagen types I, III, and IV and alpha-SMA, a marker of fibroblast activation we also measured total collagen in supernates. TGF-β and IL-4 increased the expressions of alpha smooth muscle action (SMA) collagen I, III, and IV mRNAs (P < .05 vs untreated cells) as well as the overall collagen level in the supernates (P < .01). CsA decreased the expression of mRNAs encoding alpha-SMA and collagens (P < .01). Expressions of alpha-SMA and collagens I, III, and IV mRNAs were significantly lower under combined treatments (TGF-β vs TGF-β+CsA [P < .01] and IL-4 vs IL-4+CsA [P < .01]). Collagen level was decreased by combined treatments (TGF-β vs TGF-β+CsA [P < .05] and IL-4 vs IL-4+CsA [P = .05]). Conclusion CsA inhibited the profibrotic effects of TGF-β and IL-4 by decreasing the activation and production of collagen by HIF. CsA may decrease fibroblast activation and collagen accumulation, exerting beneficial effects on fibrosis progression, particularly among patients with recurrent hepatitis C. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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