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Pleine-Fougères, France

Ledreux A.,French Natural History Museum | Serandour A.-L.,Unite de Toxicologie des Contaminants | Morin B.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Derick S.,10 Avenue de lEurope | And 8 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

Successive unexplained shellfish toxicity events have been observed in Arcachon Bay (Atlantic coast, France) since 2005. The positive mouse bioassay (MBA) revealing atypical toxicity did not match the phytoplankton observations or the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) investigations used to detect some known lipophilic toxins in shellfish. The use of the three cell lines (Caco2, HepG2, and Neuro2a) allows detection of azaspiracid-1 (AZA1), okadaic acid (OA), or pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2). In this study, we proposed the cell-based assays (CBA) as complementary tools for collecting toxicity data about atypical positive MBA shellfish extracts and tracking their chromatographic fractionation in order to identify toxic compound(s). The present study was intended to investigate the responses of these cell lines to shellfish extracts, which were either control or spiked with AZA1, OA, or PTX2 used as positive controls. Digestive glands of control shellfish were extracted using the procedure of the standard MBA for lipophilic toxins and then tested for their cytotoxic effects in CBA. The same screening strategy previously used with pure lipophilic toxins was conducted for determining the intra-and inter-laboratory variabilities of the responses. Cytotoxicity was induced by control shellfish extracts whatever the cell line used and regardless of the geographical origin of the extracts. Even though the control shellfish extracts demonstrated some toxic effects on the selected cell lines, the extracts spikedwith the selected lipophilic toxins were significantly more toxic than the control ones. This study is a crucial step for supporting that cell-based assays can contribute to the detection of the toxic compound(s) responsible for the atypical toxicity observed in Arcachon Bay, and which could also occur at other coastal areas. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Serandour A.-L.,Unite de Toxicologie des Contaminants | Ledreux A.,French Natural History Museum | Morin B.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Derick S.,10 Avenue de lEurope | And 10 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

Human poisoning due to consumption of seafood contaminated with phycotoxins is a worldwide problem, and routine monitoring programs have been implemented in various countries to protect human consumers. Following successive episodes of unexplained shellfish toxicity since 2005 in the Arcachon Bay on the French Atlantic coast, a national research program was set up to investigate these atypical toxic events. Part of this program was devoted to fit-for-purpose cell-based assays (CBA) as complementary tools to collect toxicity data on atypical positive-mouse bioassay shellfish extracts. A collaborative study involving five laboratories was conducted. The responses of human hepatic (HepG2), human intestinal (Caco2), and mouse neuronal (Neuro2a) cell lines exposed to three known lipophilic phycotoxins-okadaic acid (OA), azaspiracid-1 (AZA1), and pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2)-were investigated. A screening strategy composed of standard operating procedures and a decision tree for dose-response modeling and assay validation were designed after a round of "trial-anderror" process. For each toxin, the shape of the concentration-response curves and the IC50 values were determined on the three cell lines. Whereas OA induced a similar response irrespective of the cell line (complete sigmoid), PTX2 was shown to be less toxic. AZA1 induced cytotoxicity only on HepG2 and Neuro2a, but not on Caco2. Intra-and inter-laboratory coefficients of variation of cell responses were large, with mean values ranging from 35 to 54 % and from 37 to 48 %, respectively. Investigating the responses of the selected cell lines to well-known toxins is the first step supporting the use of CBA among the panel of methods for characterizing atypical shellfish toxicity. Considering these successful results, the CBA strategy will be further applied to extracts of negative, spiked, and naturally contaminated shellfish tissues. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

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